10 These are the records of the generations (descendants) of Shem, Ham, and Japheth, the sons of Noah; and the sons born to them after the flood:
2 the sons of Japheth: Gomer, Magog, Madai, Javan, Tubal, Meshech, and Tiras; 3 the sons of Gomer: Ashkenaz, Riphath, and Togarmah; 4 the sons of Javan: Elishah, Tarshish, Kittim, and Dodanim. 5 From these, [the people of] the coastlands of the nations were separated and spread into their lands, every one [a]according to his own language, according to their constituent groups (families), and into their nations:
6 the sons of Ham: Cush, Mizraim [from whom descended the Egyptians], Put, and Canaan; 7 the sons of Cush: Seba, Havilah, Sabtah, Raamah, and Sabteca; and the sons of Raamah; Sheba and Dedan. 8 Cush became the father of Nimrod; he became a mighty one on the earth. 9 He was a mighty hunter before the Lord; therefore it is said, “Like Nimrod a mighty hunter before the Lord.” 10 The beginning of his kingdom was [b]Babel and Erech and Accad and Calneh, in the land of Shinar [in Babylonia]. 11 From that land Nimrod went to Assyria, and built Nineveh, and Rehoboth-Ir, and Calah, 12 and [Nimrod built] Resen, which is between Nineveh and Calah; all these [combined to form] the great city [Nineveh].13 Mizraim [the ancestor of the Egyptians] became the father of Ludim, Anamim, Lehabim, Naphtuhim 14 and Pathrusim and Casluhim—from whom came the Philistines—and Caphtorim.
15 Canaan became the father of Sidon, his firstborn, and Heth 16 and the Jebusite and the Amorite and the Girgashite 17 and the Hivite and the Arkite and the Sinite 18 and the Arvadite and the Zemarite and the Hamathite. Afterward the families of the Canaanite were spread abroad. 19 The territory of the Canaanite extended from Sidon as one goes to Gerar, as far as Gaza; and as one goes to [c]Sodom and Gomorrah and Admah and Zeboiim, as far as Lasha. 20 These are the descendants of Ham according to their constituent groups, according to their languages, by their lands, and by their nations.
21 Also to Shem, the father of all the children of Eber [including the Hebrews], the [d]older brother of Japheth, children were born. 22 The sons of Shem: Elam, Asshur, Arpachshad, Lud and Aram; 23 the sons of Aram [ancestor of the Syrians]: Uz, Hul, Gether and [e]Mash. 24 Arpachshad became the father of Shelah; and Shelah became the father of Eber. 25 Two sons were born to Eber; the name of one was Peleg (division), for [the inhabitants of] the earth were divided in his days; and his brother’s name was Joktan. 26 Joktan became the father of Almodad, Sheleph, Hazarmaveth, Jerah, 27 and Hadoram, Uzal, Diklah, 28 and [f]Obal, Abimael, Sheba, 29 and Ophir, Havilah, and Jobab; all these were the sons of Joktan. 30 Now their territory extended from Mesha as one goes toward Sephar, to the hill country of the east. 31 These are Shem’s descendants according to their constituent groups (families), according to their languages, by their lands, according to their nations.
32 These are the families of the sons of Noah, according to their descendants, by their nations; and from these [people] the nations were separated and spread abroad on the earth after the flood.
Genesis 10:5Here and in vv 20 and 31, references are made to the different languages, in anticipation of God’s judgment of Babel (11:7-9), which resulted in a proliferation of languages.
Genesis 10:19The fact that Genesis mentions the four cities of Sodom, Gomorrah, Admah, and Zeboiim as still standing testifies to the antiquity of this account. These cities of the plain were completely destroyed in Abraham’s time (Gen 19:27-29; Deut 29:23).
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