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John 1-7 The Passion Translation (TPT)

The Living Expression

In the beginning[a] the Living Expression[b] was already there.

    And the Living Expression was with God, yet fully God.[c]
They were together—face-to-face,[d] in the very beginning.[e]
And through his creative inspiration
    this Living Expression made all things,[f]
    for nothing has existence apart from him!
A fountain of life was in him,[g]
    for his life is light for all humanity.[h]
And this Light never fails to shine through darkness—
    Light that darkness could not overcome![i]
Suddenly a man appeared who was sent from God,
    a messenger named John.[j]
For he came as a witness, to point the way to the Light of Life,
    and to help everyone believe.
John was not that Light but he came to show who is.
    For he was merely a messenger to speak the truth about the Light.
For the perfect Light of Truth[k] was coming into the world
    and shine upon everyone.[l]
10 He entered into the world he created,
    yet the world was unaware.[m]
11 He came to the people he created[n]
    to those who should have received him,
    but they did not recognize him.
12 But those who embraced him and took hold of his name[o]
    he gave authority to become
    the children of God!
13 He was not born by the joining of human parents[p]
    or from natural means,[q] or by a man’s desire,
    but he was born of God.[r]
14 And so the Living Expression
    became a man[s] and lived among us![t]
    We gazed upon his glory,[u]
    the glory of the One and Only[v]
    who came from the Father overflowing
    with tender mercy[w] and truth!
15 John announced the truth about him
    when he taught the people,
    “He’s the One!
    He’s the One I’ve been telling you would come after me,
    even though he ranks far above me,
    because he existed before I was even born.”[x]
16 And from the overflow of his fullness
    we received[y] grace heaped upon more grace![z]
17 Moses gave us the Law, but Jesus, the Anointed One,
    unveils truth wrapped in tender mercy.[aa]
18 No one ever before gazed upon the full splendor of God
    except his uniquely beloved Son,
    who is cherished by the Father[ab]
    and held close to his heart.
    Now that he has come to us, he has unfolded[ac]
    the full explanation of who God truly is!

The Ministry of John the Baptizer

19 Now this was John’s testimony when some of the Jewish leaders[ad] sent an entourage of priests and temple servants[ae] from Jerusalem to interrogate him. “Who are you?” they asked him.

20 John answered them directly, saying, “I am not the Messiah!”

21 “Then who are you?” they asked. “Are you Elijah?”

“No,” John replied.

So they pressed him further, “Are you the prophet Moses said was coming, the one we’re expecting?”[af]

“No,” he replied.

22 “Then who are you?” they demanded. “We need an answer for those who sent us. Tell us something about yourself—anything!”

23 John answered them, “I am an urgent, thunderous voice crying out in the desert—clear the way and prepare your hearts for the coming of the Lord Yahweh!”[ag]

24 Then some members of the religious sect known as the Pharisees[ah] questioned John, 25 “Why do you baptize the people if you are neither the Messiah, Elijah, nor the Prophet?”

26–27 John answered them, “I baptize the people in this river, but the One who will take my place is to be more honored than I,[ai] but even when he stands among you, you will not recognize or embrace him! I am not worthy enough to stoop down in front of him and untie his sandals!” 28 All these events took place at Bethany,[aj] where John was baptizing at the place of the crossing of the Jordan River.[ak]

The Lamb of God

29 The very next day, John saw Jesus coming to him to be baptized, and John cried out, “Look! There he is—God’s Lamb![al] He takes away[am] the sin of the entire world![an] 30 I told you that a Mighty One[ao] would come who is far greater than I am, because he existed long before I was born! 31 My baptism was for the preparation of his appearing to Israel, even though I didn’t recognize him.”

32 Then, as he baptized Jesus, he proclaimed these words: “I see the Spirit of God appear like a dove descending from the heavenly realm and landing upon him—and it remained on him![ap] 33 Before this I didn’t know who he was. But the one who sent me to baptize with water had told me, ‘You will see the Spirit come down and stay on someone. He will be the One I have sent to baptize with the Holy Spirit.’[aq] 34 Now I have seen this happen and I can tell you for sure that this man is the Son of God.”[ar]

Jesus’ First Followers

35–36 The next day, Jesus walked right past where John and two of his disciples were standing. John, gazing upon Jesus, pointed to him and prophesied, “Look! There’s God’s sacrificial[as] Lamb!” 37 And as soon as John’s two disciples heard this, they immediately left John and began to follow a short distance behind Jesus.

38 Jesus turned around and saw they were following him and asked, “What do you want?”[at] They responded, “Rabbi (which means, Master Teacher[au]), where are you staying?”[av]

39 Jesus answered, “Come and discover for yourselves.” So they went with him and saw where he was staying, and since it was late in the afternoon, they spent the rest of the day with Jesus.

40–41 One of the two disciples who heard John’s words and began to follow Jesus was a man named Andrew.[aw] He first found his brother, Simon Peter, and told him, “We have found the Anointed One!”[ax] (Which is translated, the Christ.) 42 Then Andrew brought Simon to meet Jesus. When he gazed upon Andrew’s brother, he prophesied to him, “You are Simon and your father’s name is John.[ay] But from now on, everyone will call you Cephas” (which means, Peter the Rock).[az]

Jesus Calls Philip and Nathanael

43 The next day, Jesus decided to go to Galilee, where he found Philip. Jesus said to him, “Come and follow me.” 44 (Now Philip, Andrew, and Peter had all grown up together in the village of Bethsaida.)[ba] 45 Philip went to look for his friend, Nathanael,[bb] and told him, “We’ve found him! We’ve found the One we’ve been waiting for! It’s Jesus, son of Joseph from Nazareth! He’s the One whom Moses and the prophets prophesied would come!”

46 Nathanael sneered, “Nazareth! What good thing could ever come from Nazareth?”[bc] Philip answered, “Come and let’s find out!”

47 When Jesus saw Nathanael approaching, he said, “Here comes a true son of Israel—an honest man with no hidden motive!”

48 Nathanael was stunned and said, “But you’ve never met me—how do you know anything about me?”

Jesus answered, “Nathanael, right before Philip came to you, I saw you sitting under the shade of a fig tree.”[bd]

49 Nathanael blurted out, “Teacher, you are truly the Son of God and the King of Israel!”

50 Jesus answered, “Do you believe simply because I told you I saw you sitting under a fig tree? You will experience even more impressive things than that! 51 I prophesy to you eternal truth:[be] From now on,[bf] you all will see[bg] an open heaven and gaze upon the Son of Man[bh] like a stairway reaching into the sky[bi] with the messengers of God climbing up and down upon[bj] him!”

Jesus Comes to a Wedding

Now on the third day,[bk] Jesus’ mother went to a wedding feast in the Galilean village of Cana.[bl] 2–3 Jesus and his disciples were all invited to the banquet,[bm] but with so many guests, they ran out of wine.[bn] And when Mary realized it, she came to Jesus and asked, “They have no wine; can’t you do something about it?[bo]

Jesus replied, “My dear one, don’t you understand that if I do this, it will change nothing for you, but it will change everything for me![bp] My hour of unveiling my power has not yet come.”

Mary then went to the servers and told them, “Whatever Jesus tells you, do it!”

Nearby stood six stone water pots[bq] meant to be used for the Jewish washing rituals.[br] Each one could hold about twenty gallons or more. Jesus came to the servers and instructed them, “Fill the pots with water, right up to the very brim. Then he said, “Now fill your pitchers and take them to the master of ceremonies.”

And when they poured out their pitchers for the master of ceremonies to sample, the water had become wine! When he tasted the water that had become wine, the master of ceremonies was impressed with its quality. (Although he didn’t know where the wine had come from, only the servers knew.) He called the bridegroom over 10 and said to him, “Every host serves his best wine first, until everyone has had a cup or two, then he serves the cheaper wine. But you, my friend, you’ve reserved the most exquisite wine until now!”[bs]

11 This miracle in Cana was the first of the many extraordinary miracles Jesus performed in Galilee that revealed his glory,[bt] and his disciples believed in him.[bu]

Jesus at the Temple

12 After the wedding, Jesus, his mother and brothers, and his disciples traveled to Capernaum[bv] and stayed there for a few days. 13 When the time was close for the Jewish Passover to begin, Jesus walked to Jerusalem.[bw] 14 As he went into the temple courtyard, he noticed it was filled with merchants selling oxen, lambs, and doves for exorbitant prices, while others were overcharging as they exchanged currency[bx] behind their counters. 15 So Jesus found some cords and made them into a whip. Then he drove out every one of them and their animals from the courtyard of the temple, and he kicked over their tables filled with money, scattering it everywhere![by] 16 And he told the merchants,[bz] “Get these things out of here! Don’t you dare commercialize my Father’s house!” 17 That’s when his disciples remembered the Scripture: “I am consumed with a fiery passion to keep your house pure!”[ca]

18 Then the Jewish religious leaders challenged Jesus, “What authority do you have to do this sort of thing and what supernatural sign will you show us to prove it?”

19 Jesus answered, “Destroy this temple,[cb] and I will raise it up again in three days.”

20 Then the Jewish leaders sneered at Jesus’ answer, “This temple took forty-six years[cc] to build, and you mean to tell us that you will raise it up in three days?” 21 But they failed to understand that Jesus was speaking of the “temple” of his body.[cd] 22 The disciples remembered his prophecy after Jesus rose from the dead, and believed both the Scripture and what Jesus had said.

23 While Jesus was at the Passover Feast, the number of his followers began to grow, and many gave their allegiance to him because of all the miraculous signs they had seen him doing! 24 But Jesus did not yet entrust himself to them, because he knew how fickle human hearts can be. 25 He needed no one to tell him about human nature, for he fully understood what man was capable of doing.


Now there was a prominent religious leader among the Jews named Nicodemus,[ce] who was part of the sect called the Pharisees. One night he discreetly came to Jesus and said, “Rabbi, we know that you are a teacher come from God, for no one performs the miracle signs that you do, unless God’s power is with him.”

Jesus answered, “Nicodemus, listen to this eternal truth: Before a person can even perceive God’s kingdom, they must first experience a rebirth.”[cf]

Nicodemus said, “Rebirth? How can a gray-headed man be reborn? It’s impossible for anyone to go back into the womb a second time and be reborn!”

Jesus answered, “I speak an eternal truth: Unless you are born of water[cg] and the Spirit, you will never enter God’s kingdom. For the natural realm only gives birth to things that are natural, but the spiritual realm gives birth to supernatural life!

“You shouldn’t be amazed by my statement,[ch] ‘You all must be born from above!’[ci] For the Spirit-Wind blows as it chooses. You can hear its sound,[cj] but you don’t know where it came from or where it’s going. So it is the same with those who are Spirit-born!”[ck]

Nicodemus replied, “I don’t understand; what do you mean? How does this happen?”

10 Jesus answered, “Nicodemus, aren’t you the respected teacher in Israel, and yet you don’t understand this revelation? 11 I speak eternal truths about things I know, things I’ve seen and experienced—and still you don’t accept what I reveal. 12 If you’re unable to believe what I’ve told you about the natural realm, what will you do when I begin to unveil the heavenly realm? 13 No one has risen into the heavenly realm except the Son of Man who also exists in heaven.”[cl]

God’s Love for Everyone

14 “And just as Moses in the desert lifted up the brass replica of a venomous snake on a pole for all the people to see and be healed,[cm] so the Son of Man is ready to be lifted up, 15 so that those who truly believe in him[cn] will not perish but be given eternal life. 16 For here is the way God loved the world—he gave his only, unique Son as a gift.[co] So now everyone who believes in him[cp] will never perish but experience everlasting life.

17 “God did not send his Son into the world to judge and condemn the world, but to be its Savior and rescue it![cq] 18 So now there is no longer any condemnation for those who believe in him, but the unbeliever already lives under condemnation because they do not believe in the name of the only Son of God.[cr] 19 And here is the basis for their judgment: The Light of God has now come into the world, but the people loved darkness more than the Light, because they want the darkness to conceal their evil. 20 So the wicked hate the Light and try to hide from it, for the Light fully exposes their lives. 21 But those who love the truth[cs] will come into the Light, for the Light will reveal that it was God who produced their fruitful works.”[ct]

John, Friend of the Bridegroom

22 Then Jesus and his disciples left for a length of time into the Judean countryside where they baptized the people. 23 At this time John was still baptizing people at Aenon,[cu] near Salim,[cv] where there was plenty of water, and the people kept coming for John to baptize them. 24 (This was before John was thrown into prison.)

25 An argument started between John’s disciples and a particular Jewish man about baptism.[cw] 26 So they went to John and asked him, “Teacher, are you aware that the One you told us about at the crossing place—he’s now baptizing crowds larger than yours. People are flocking to him!”

27 John answered them, “A person cannot receive even one thing unless God bestows it.[cx] 28 You’ve heard me tell you that I am not the Messiah, but certainly I am the messenger sent ahead of him. 29 He is the Bridegroom,[cy] and the bride belongs to him. I am the friend[cz] of the Bridegroom who stands nearby and listens with great joy to the Bridegroom’s voice. Because of his words, my joy is complete and overflows! 30 It is necessary for him to increase[da] and for me to decrease.[db]

31 “For the one who is from the earth belongs to the earth and speaks from the natural realm. But the One who comes from above is above everything and speaks of the highest realm of all! 32 His message is about what he has seen and experienced, even though people don’t accept it. 33 Yet those who embrace his message know in their hearts that it’s the truth.[dc]

34 “The One whom God has sent to represent him will speak the words of God, because God has poured out upon him the fullness of the Holy Spirit without limitation.[dd] 35 The Father loves his Son so much that he has given all things into his hands.[de] 36 Those who trust in the Son possess eternal life; those who don’t obey[df] the Son will not see life, and God’s anger will rise up against them.”[dg]

A Thirsty Savior

The news quickly reached the Jewish religious leaders known as the Pharisees that Jesus was drawing greater crowds of followers coming to be baptized than John. (Although Jesus himself didn’t baptize, but only his disciples.) Jesus[dh] heard what was being said and abruptly left Judea and returned to the province of Galilee, and he had to pass through Samaria.[di]

Jesus arrived at the Samaritan village of Sychar,[dj] near the field that Jacob had given to his son Joseph. 6–8 Wearied by his long journey, he sat on the edge of Jacob’s well,[dk] and sent his disciples into the village to buy food, for it was already afternoon.

Soon a Samaritan woman came to draw water. Jesus said to her, “Give me a drink.”[dl]

She replied, “Why would a Jewish man ask a Samaritan woman for a drink of water?” (For Jews have no dealings with Samaritans.)

10 Jesus replied, “If you only knew who I am and the gift that God wants to give you, you’d ask me for a drink, and I would give you living water.”

11 The woman replied, “But sir,[dm] you don’t even have a bucket, and the well is very deep. So where do you find this ‘living water’? 12 Do you really think that you are greater than our ancestor Jacob who dug this well and drank from it himself, along with his children and livestock?”

13 Jesus answered, “If you drink from Jacob’s well, you’ll be thirsty again, 14 but if anyone drinks the living water I give them, they will never be thirsty again. For when you drink the water I give you, it becomes a gushing fountain of the Holy Spirit, flooding you with endless life!”[dn]

15 The woman replied, “Let me drink that water so I’ll never be thirsty again and won’t have to come back here to draw water.”

16 Jesus said, “Go get your husband and bring him back here.”

17 “But I’m not married,” the woman answered.

“That’s true,” Jesus said, 18 “for you’ve been married five times,[do] and now you’re living with a man who is not your husband. You have told the truth.”[dp]

19 The woman changed the subject. “You must be a prophet! 20 So tell me this: Why do our fathers worship God on this nearby mountain,[dq] but your people teach that Jerusalem is the place where we must worship. Who is right?”

Jesus responded, 21 “Believe me, dear woman, the time has come when you will worship[dr] the Father neither on a mountain nor in Jerusalem, but in your heart. 22 Your people don’t really know the One they worship, but we Jews worship out of our experience, for it’s from the Jews that salvation is available.[ds] 23–24 From now on, worshiping the Father will not be a matter of the right place but with a right heart. For God is a Spirit,[dt] and he longs to have sincere worshipers who adore him in the realm of the Spirit and in truth.”

25 The woman said, “This is all so confusing, but I do know that the Anointed One is coming—the true Messiah. And when he comes, he will tell us everything we need to know.”

26 Jesus said to her, “You don’t have to wait any longer, the Anointed One is here speaking with you—I am the One you’re looking for.”[du]

27 At that moment, his disciples returned and were stunned to see Jesus speaking with a Samaritan woman, yet none of them dared ask him why or what they were discussing. 28 All at once, the woman left her water jar and ran off to her village and told everyone, 29 “Come and meet a man at the well who told me everything I’ve ever done![dv] He could be the One we’ve been waiting for.” 30 Hearing this, the people came streaming out of the village to go see Jesus.[dw]

The Harvest Is Ready

31 Then the disciples began to insist that Jesus eat some of the food they brought back with them, saying, “Teacher, you must eat something.” 32 But Jesus told them, “I have eaten a meal[dx] you don’t know about.”

33 Puzzled by this, the disciples began to discuss it among themselves, “Did someone already bring him food?”

34 To clarify, Jesus spoke up and said, “My food is to do the will of him who sent me and bring it to completion.”

35 As the crowds emerged from the village, Jesus said to his disciples, “Why would you say, ‘The harvest is another four months away’? Look at all the people coming—now is harvest time! Their hearts are like vast fields of ripened grain—ready for a harvest. 36 Everyone who reaps these souls for eternal life will receive a reward. Both those who plant spiritual seeds and those who reap the spiritual harvest will celebrate together with great joy! 37 And this confirms the saying, ‘One sows the seed and another reaps the harvest.’[dy] 38 I have sent you out to harvest a field that you haven’t planted, where many others have labored long and hard before you.[dz] And now you are privileged to profit from their labors and reap the harvest.”

39 Many from the Samaritan village became believers in Jesus because of the woman’s testimony: “He told me everything I ever did!” 40 Then they begged Jesus to stay with them, so he stayed there for two days, 41 resulting in many more coming to faith in him because of his message.

42 The Samaritans said to the woman, “Now we’ve heard him ourselves. We no longer believe just because of what you told us, but we’re convinced that he really is the true Savior of the world!”[ea]

Jesus Returns to Galilee

43 On the third day Jesus left there and continued his journey to Galilee, where he had been raised.[eb] 44 Now Jesus knew that prophets are honored everywhere except in their own hometown. 45 Even so, as Jesus arrived in the province of Galilee, the people welcomed him with open arms. Many of them had been in Jerusalem during the Passover Festival and had witnessed firsthand the miracles he had performed.[ec]

46–47 Jesus entered the village of Cana of Galilee where he had transformed water into wine. He met there a governmental official from Capernaum whose son was very sick and dying. When he heard that Jesus had left Judea and was staying in Cana of Galilee, he decided to make the journey to Cana.[ed] When he found Jesus, he begged him, “You must come with me to Capernaum and heal my son!”

48 So Jesus said to him, “You[ee] never believe unless you see signs and wonders.”[ef]

49 But the man continued to plead, “Come with me to Capernaum before my little boy dies!”

50 Jesus looked him in the eyes and said, “Go back home now. I promise you, your son will live.”

The man believed in his heart the words of Jesus and set off for home. 51 When he was still a distance from Capernaum, his servants met him on the road and told him the good news, “Your son is healed! He’s alive!”

52 Overjoyed, the father asked his servants, “When did my son begin to recover?”

“Yesterday,” they said, “at one in the afternoon. All at once his fever broke—and now he’s well!”

53 Then the father immediately realized that it was at that very same hour that Jesus spoke the words to him, “Your son will live.” From that day forward, the man, his servants, and all his family believed. 54 Healing the official’s son was Jesus’ second extraordinary miracle in Galilee after returning from Judea.[eg]

The Healing at Bethesda

From Galilee, Jesus returned to Jerusalem to observe one of the Jewish feasts.[eh] Inside the city, near the Sheep Gate,[ei] there is[ej] a pool called in Aramaic, The House of Loving Kindness,[ek] surrounded by five covered porches.[el] Hundreds of sick people were lying under the covered porches—the paralyzed, the blind, and the crippled—all of them waiting for their healing. For an angel of God periodically descended into the pool to stir the waters, and the first one who stepped into the pool after the waters swirled would instantly be healed.[em]

Among the many sick people lying there was a man who had been disabled for thirty-eight years.[en] When Jesus saw him lying there, he knew that the man had been crippled for a long time.[eo] Jesus said to him, “Do you truly long to be well?”[ep]

The sick man answered, “Sir,[eq] there’s no way I can get healed, for I have no one to lower me into the water when the angel comes. As soon as I try to crawl to the edge of the pool, someone else jumps in ahead of me.”

Jesus said to him, “Stand up! Pick up your sleeping mat and you will walk!” Immediately he stood up—he was healed! So he rolled up his mat and walked again! Now Jesus worked this miracle on the Sabbath.[er]

10 When the Jewish leaders saw the man walking along carrying his sleeping mat,[es] they objected and said, “What are you doing carrying that? Don’t you know it’s the Sabbath? It’s not lawful for you to carry things on the Sabbath!”

11 He answered them, “The man who healed me told me to pick it up and walk.”

12 “What man?” they asked him. “Who was this man who ordered you to carry something on a Sabbath?”[et] 13 But the healed man couldn’t give them an answer, for he didn’t yet know who it was, since Jesus had already slipped away into the crowd.

14 A short time later, Jesus found the man at the temple and said to him, “Look at you now! You’re healed! Walk away from your sin[eu] so that nothing worse will happen to you.”

15 Then the man went to the Jewish leaders to inform them, “It was Jesus who healed me!” 16 From that day forward the Jewish leaders began to persecute Jesus because of the things he did on the Sabbath.

Jesus Responds to the Jewish Leaders

17 Jesus answered his critics by saying, “Every day my Father is at work, and I will be, too!” 18 This infuriated them and made them all the more eager to devise a plan to kill him. For not only did he break their Sabbath rules,[ev] but he also called God “my Father,” which made him equal to God.[ew]

19 So Jesus said, “I speak to you eternal truth. The Son is unable to do anything from himself or through his own initiative. I only do the works that I see the Father doing, for the Son does the same works as his Father.

20 “Because the Father loves his Son so much, he always reveals to him everything that he is about to do. And you will all be amazed when he shows him even greater works than what you’ve seen so far! 21 For just as the Father has power to raise the dead, the Son will also raise the dead and give life to whomever he wants.

22 “The Father judges no one, for he has given to the Son all the authority to judge. 23 Therefore, the honor that belongs to the Father he will now share with his Son. So if you refuse to honor the Son, you are refusing to honor the Father who sent him.

24 “I speak to you an eternal truth: if you embrace my message and believe in the One who sent me, you will never face condemnation. In me, you have already passed from the realm of death into eternal life!”

Two Resurrections

25 “I speak to you an eternal truth: Soon the dead will hear the voice of the Son of God, and those who listen will arise with life! 26 For as the Father is the source of life, so he has given the Son the power to impart life. 27 The Father has transferred to the Son the authority to judge, because he is the Son of Man.

28 “Don’t be amazed when I tell you these things, for there is a day coming when everyone who has ever died will hear my voice calling them back to life, 29 and they will come out of their graves! Those who have done what is good will experience a resurrection to eternal life. And those who have practiced evil will taste the resurrection of judgment!

30 “Nothing I do is from my own initiative. As I hear the judgment passed by my Father, I execute those judgments. And my judgments will be perfect, because I seek only to fulfill the desires of my Father who sent me. 31 If I were to make claims about myself, you would have reasons to doubt.[ex] 32 But there is another[ey] who bears witness on my behalf, and I know that what he testifies of me is true.”

John the Baptizer

33 “You have sent messengers to John, and what he testified about me is true. 34 I have no need to be validated by men, but I’m explaining these things so that you will believe and be saved.

35 “John was a blazing, shining torch,[ez] and for a short time, you basked in his light with great joy. 36 But I can provide more substantial proof of who I am that exceeds John’s testimony—my miracles! These works which the Father destined for me to complete—they prove that the Father has sent me! 37 And my Father himself, who gave me this mission, has also testified that I am his Son.[fa] But you have never heard his voice nor seen his form, 38 nor does his Word truly live inside of you, for you refuse to believe in me or to embrace me as God’s messenger.

39 “You are busy analyzing the Scriptures, poring over them hoping to gain eternal life. Everything you read points to me, 40 yet you still refuse to come to me so I can give you the life you’re looking for—eternal life![fb]

41 “I do not accept the honor that comes from men, 42 for I know what kind of people you really are, and I can see that the love of God has found no home in you. 43 I have come to represent my Father, yet you refuse to embrace me in faith. If someone comes in their own name and with their own agenda,[fc] you readily accept him. 44 Of course you’re unable to believe in me. For you live to enjoy the praises of others and not the praise that comes from the one true God.

45 “I will not accuse you before the Father. The one who will incriminate you is Moses, the very one you claim to obey, the one in whom you trust![fd] 46 If you really believed what Moses has written, then you would embrace me, for Moses wrote about me! 47 But since you do not believe what he wrote, no wonder you don’t believe what I say.”[fe]

Jesus Multiplies Food

After this Jesus went to the other side of the Lake of Tiberias,[ff] which is also known as Lake Galilee. And a massive crowd of people followed him everywhere. They were attracted by his miracles and the healings they watched him perform. Jesus went up the slope of a hill and sat down with his disciples. Now it was approaching the time of the Jewish celebration of Passover, and there were many pilgrims on their way to Jerusalem in the crowd.

As Jesus sat down, he looked out and saw the massive crowd of people scrambling up the hill, for they wanted to be near him. So he turned to Philip and said, “Where will we buy enough food to feed all these people?” Now Jesus already knew what he was about to do, but he said this to stretch Philip’s faith.

Philip answered, “Well, I suppose if we were to give everyone only a snack, it would cost thousands of dollars[fg] to buy enough food!”

But just then, Andrew, Peter’s brother, spoke up and said, “Look! Here’s a young person[fh] with five barley loaves and two small fish . . . but how far would that go with this huge crowd?”

10 “Have everyone sit down,” Jesus said to his disciples. So on the vast grassy slope, more than five thousand hungry people sat down.[fi] 11 Jesus then took the barley loaves[fj] and the fish and gave thanks to God. He then gave it to the disciples to distribute to the people. Miraculously, the food multiplied, with everyone eating as much as they wanted![fk]

12 When everyone was satisfied, Jesus told his disciples, “Now go back and gather up the pieces left over so that nothing will be wasted.” 13 The disciples filled up twelve baskets of fragments, a basket of leftovers for each disciple.

14 All the people were astounded as they saw with their own eyes the incredible miracle Jesus had performed! They began to say among themselves, “He really is the One—the true prophet[fl] we’ve been expecting!”

15 So Jesus, knowing that they were about to take him and make him their king by force, quickly left and went up the mountainside alone.[fm]

Jesus Walks on Water

16–17 After waiting until evening for Jesus to return, the disciples went down to the lake. But as darkness fell, he still hadn’t returned, so the disciples got into a boat and headed across the lake to Capernaum.[fn] 18 By now a strong wind[fo] began to blow and was stirring up the waters. 19 The disciples had rowed about halfway[fp] across the lake when all of a sudden they caught sight of Jesus walking on top of the waves, coming toward them. The disciples panicked, 20 but Jesus called out to them, “Don’t be afraid. You know who I am.”[fq]

21 They were relieved to take him in, and the moment Jesus stepped into the boat, they were instantly transported to the other side!

Jesus, the Living Bread

22–23 The next morning, the crowds were still on the opposite shore of the lake, near the place where they had eaten the bread he had multiplied after he had given thanks to God.[fr] Yet Jesus was nowhere to be found. They realized that only one boat had been there and that Jesus’ hadn’t boarded, and they concluded that his disciples had left him behind. 24 So when the people saw on the shoreline a number of small boats from Tiberias and realized Jesus and the disciples weren’t there, they got into the boats and went to Capernaum to search for him.

25 When they finally found him, they asked him, “Teacher, how did you get here?”

26 Jesus replied, “Let me make this very clear,[fs] you came looking for me because I fed you by a miracle, not because you believe in me. 27 Why would you strive for food that is perishable and not be passionate to seek the food of eternal life, which never spoils?[ft] I, the Son of Man, am ready to give you what matters most, for God the Father has destined me for this purpose.”[fu]

28 They replied, “So what should we do if we want to do God’s work?”

29 Jesus answered, “The work you can do for God starts with believing in the One he has sent.”

30–31 They replied, “Show us a miracle so we can see it, and then we’ll believe in you. Moses took care of our ancestors who were fed by the miracle of manna[fv] every day in the desert, just like the Scripture says, ‘He fed them with bread from heaven.’[fw] What sign will you perform for us?”

32 “The truth is,”[fx] Jesus said, “Moses didn’t give you the bread of heaven. It’s my Father who offers bread that comes as a dramatic sign[fy] from heaven. 33 The bread of God is the One who came out of heaven to give his life to feed the world.”

34 “Then please, sir, give us this bread every day,” they replied.

35 Jesus said to them, “I am the Bread of Life.[fz] Come every day to me and you will never be hungry. Believe in me and you will never be thirsty. 36 Yet I’ve told you that even though you’ve seen me, you still don’t believe in me. 37 But everyone my Father has given to me, they will come. And all who come to me, I will embrace and will never turn them away. 38 And I have come out of heaven not for my own desires, but for the satisfaction[ga] of my Father who sent me. 39 My Father who sent me has determined that I will not lose even one of those he has given to me, and I will raise them up in the last day. 40 For the longing of my Father is that everyone who embraces the Son[gb] and believes in him will experience eternal life and I will raise them up in the last day!”

41 When the Jews who were hostile to Jesus heard him say, “I am the Bread that came down from heaven,” they immediately began to complain, 42 “How can he say these things about himself? We know him, and we know his parents. How dare he say, ‘I have come down from heaven?’ ”

43 Jesus responded, “Stop your grumbling! 44 The only way people come to me is by the Father who sent me—he pulls[gc] on their hearts to embrace me. And those who are drawn to me, I will certainly raise them up in the last day.”

45 Jesus continued, “It has been written by the prophets, ‘They will all be taught by God himself.’[gd] If you are really listening to the Father and learning directly from him, you will come to me. 46 For I am the only One who has come from the Father’s side, and I have seen the Father!

47 “I speak to you living truth: Unite your heart to me and believe—and you will experience eternal life! 48 I am the true Bread of Life.[ge] 49 Your ancestors ate manna in the desert and died. 50 But standing here before you is the true Bread that comes out of heaven, and when you eat this Bread you will never die. 51 I alone am this living Bread that has come to you from heaven. Eat this Bread and you will live forever. The living Bread I give you is my body, which I will offer as a sacrifice so that all may live.”

52 These words of Jesus sparked an angry outburst among the Jews. They protested, saying, “Does this man expect us to eat his body?”

53 Jesus replied to them, “Listen to this eternal truth: Unless you eat the body of the Son of Man and drink his blood, you will not have eternal life. 54 Eternal life comes to the one who eats my body[gf] and drinks my blood, and I will raise him up in the last day. 55 For my body is real food for your spirit and my blood is real drink. 56 The one who eats my body and drinks my blood lives in me and I live in him.[gg] 57 The Father of life sent me, and he is my life. In the same way, the one who feeds upon me, I will become his life. 58 I am not like the bread your ancestors ate and later died. I am the living Bread that comes from heaven. Eat this Bread and you will live forever!”

59 Jesus preached this sermon in the synagogue in Capernaum.

Many Disciples Became Offended

60 And when many of Jesus’ followers heard these things, it caused a stir. “That’s disgusting!” they said. “How could anybody accept it?”[gh]

61 Without anyone telling him, Jesus knew they were outraged and told them, “Are you offended over my teaching? 62 What will you do when you see the Son of Man ascending into the realm from where he came?[gi]

63 “The Holy Spirit is the one who gives life, that which is of the natural realm[gj] is of no help. The words I speak to you are Spirit and life. But there are still some of you who won’t believe.” 64 In fact, Jesus already knew from the beginning who the skeptics were and who his traitor would be.

65 He went on to say, “This is why I told you that no one embraces me unless the Father has given you to me.”

Peter’s Confession of Faith

66 And so from that time on many of the disciples turned their backs on Jesus and refused to be associated with him.[gk] 67 So Jesus said to his twelve, “And you—do you also want to leave?” 68 Peter spoke up and said, “But Lord, where would we go? No one but you gives us the revelation of eternal life. 69 We’re fully convinced that you are the Anointed One, the Son of the Living God,[gl] and we believe in you!”

70 Then Jesus shocked them with these words: “I have hand-picked you to be my twelve, knowing that one of you is the devil.”[gm] 71 Jesus was referring to Judas Iscariot,[gn] son of Simon, for he knew that Judas, one of his chosen disciples, was getting ready to betray him.

Jesus at the Feast of Tabernacles

After this Jesus traveled extensively throughout the province of Galilee, but he avoided the province of Judea, for he knew the Jewish leaders in Jerusalem were plotting to have him killed. Now the annual Feast of Tabernacles[go] was approaching. So Jesus’ brothers[gp] came to advise him, saying, “Why don’t you leave the countryside villages and go to Judea where the crowds are,[gq] so that your followers can see your miracles? No one can see what you’re doing here in the backwoods of Galilee. How do you expect to be successful and famous if you do all these things in secret? Now is your time—go to Jerusalem, come out of hiding, and show the world who you are!” His brothers were pushing him, even though they didn’t yet believe in him as the Savior.[gr]

Jesus responded, “My time of being unveiled hasn’t yet come, but any time is a suitable opportunity for you to gain man’s approval. The world can’t hate you, but it does me, for I am exposing their evil deeds. You can go ahead and celebrate the feast without me—my appointed time has not yet come.”

9–10 Jesus lingered in Galilee until his brothers had left for the feast in Jerusalem. Then later, Jesus took a back road and went into Jerusalem in secret. 11 During the feast, the Jewish leaders kept looking for Jesus and asking around, “Where is he? Have you seen him?”

12 A controversy was brewing among the people, with so many differing opinions about Jesus. Some were saying, “He’s a good man!” While others weren’t convinced and insisted, saying, “He’s just a demagogue.”[gs] 13 Yet no one was bold enough to speak out publicly on Jesus’ behalf for fear of the Jewish leaders.

14 Not until the feast was half over did Jesus finally appear in the temple courts and begin to teach. 15 The Jewish leaders were astonished by what he taught and said, “How did this man acquire such knowledge? He wasn’t trained in our schools—who taught him?”

16 So Jesus responded, “I don’t teach my own ideas,[gt] but the truth revealed to me by the One who sent me. 17 If you want to test my teachings and discover where I received them, first be passionate to do God’s will,[gu] and then you will be able to discern if my teachings are from the heart of God or from my own opinions. 18 Charlatans praise themselves and seek honor from men, but my Father sent me to speak truth on his behalf. And I have no false motive, because I seek only the glory of God. 19 Moses has given you the law, but not one of you is faithful to keep it. So if you are all law-breakers, why then would you seek to kill me?”

20 Then some in the crowd shouted out, “You must be out of your mind![gv] Who’s trying to kill you?”

21 Jesus replied, “I only had to do one miracle,[gw] and all of you marvel! 22 Yet isn’t it true that Moses and your forefathers[gx] ordered you to circumcise your sons even if the eighth day fell on a Sabbath?[gy] 23 So if you cut away part of a man on the Sabbath and that doesn’t break the Jewish law,[gz] why then would you be indignant with me for making a man completely healed on the Sabbath? 24 Stop judging based on the superficial.[ha] First you must embrace the standards of mercy[hb] and truth.”

25 Then some of the residents of Jerusalem spoke up and said, “Isn’t this the one they’re trying to kill? 26 So why is he here speaking publicly and not one of the Jewish leaders is doing anything about it? Are they starting to think that he’s the Anointed One? 27 But how could he be, since we know this man is from Galilee, but no one will know where the true Messiah comes from, he’ll just appear out of nowhere.”[hc]

28 Knowing all of this, Jesus one day preached boldly in the temple courts, “So, you think you know me and where I come from? But you don’t know the One who sent me—the Father who is always faithful.[hd] I have not come simply on my own initiative. 29 The Father has sent me here, and I know all about him, for I have come from his presence.”[he]

30 His words caused many to want to arrest him, but no man was able to lay a hand on him, for it wasn’t yet his appointed time. 31 And there were many people who thought he might be the Messiah. They said, “After all, when the Anointed One appears, could he possibly do more signs and wonders than this man has done?”

32 So when the Pharisees[hf] heard these rumors circulating about Jesus, they went with the leading priests and the temple guards to arrest him.

33 Then Jesus said, “My days to be with you are numbered. Then I will return to the One who sent me. 34 And you will search for me and not be able to find me. For where I am,[hg] you cannot come.”[hh]

35 When the Jewish leaders heard this, they discussed among themselves, “Where could he possibly go that we won’t be able to find him? Is he going to minister in a different land where our people live scattered among the nations? Is he going to teach those who are not Jews?[hi] 36 What did he really mean by his statement, ‘You will search for me and won’t be able to find me. And where I am you can’t come’?”

Rivers of Living Water

37 Then on the most important day of the feast, the last day,[hj] Jesus stood and shouted out to the crowds—“All you thirsty ones, come to me! Come to me and drink! 38 Believe in me so that rivers of living water will burst out from within you, flowing[hk] from your innermost being, just like the Scripture says!”[hl]

39 Jesus was prophesying about the Holy Spirit that believers were being prepared to receive.[hm] But the Holy Spirit had not yet been poured out upon them, because Jesus had not yet been unveiled in his full splendor.[hn]

Divided Opinions about Jesus

40 When the crowd heard Jesus’ words, some said, “This man really is a prophet!” 41 Others said, “He’s the Messiah!” But others said, “How could he be the Anointed One since he’s from Galilee? 42 Don’t the Scriptures say that he will be one of David’s descendants and be born in Bethlehem, the city of David?”[ho] 43 So the crowd was divided over Jesus, 44 some wanted him arrested but no one dared to lay a hand on him.

The Unbelief of Religious Leaders

45 So when the temple guards returned to the Pharisees and the leading priests without Jesus, they were questioned, “Where is he? Why didn’t you bring that man back with you?”

46 They answered, “You don’t understand—he speaks amazing things like no one else has ever spoken!”

47 The religious leaders mocked, “Oh, so now you also have been led astray by him? 48 Do you see even one of us, your leaders, following him? 49 This ignorant rabble swarms around him because none of them know anything about the Law! They’re all cursed!”

50 Just then, Nicodemus, who had secretly spent time with Jesus, spoke up, for he was a respected voice among them. 51 He cautioned them, saying, “Does our law decide a man’s guilt before we first hear him and allow him to defend himself?”

52 They argued, “Oh, so now you’re an advocate for this Galilean! Search the Scriptures, Nicodemus, and you’ll see that there’s no mention of a prophet coming out of Galilee!”[hp] So with that their debate ended, 53 and they each went their own way.


  1. 1:1 Most scholars consider the first eighteen verses of John to be the words of an ancient hymn or poem that was cherished by first-century believers in Christ.
  2. 1:1 The Greek is logos, which has a rich and varied background in both Greek philosophy and Judaism. The Greeks equated logos with the highest principle of cosmic order. God’s logos in the Old Testament conveys his powerful self-expression in creation, revelation, and redemption. In the New Testament we have this new unique view of God given to us by John, which signifies the presence of God himself in the flesh. Some have translated this rich term as “Word.” Though the Greek term logos may be rendered “word,” it would be wrong to think it indicates primarily a lexical unit in a sentence. Logos is more accurately understood as a form of self-revealing or “message.” Jesus Christ is the eternal Message, the creative Word, and the Living Expression of God made visible. He is the divine self-expression of all that God is, contains, and reveals in incarnated flesh. Just as we express ourselves in words, God has perfectly expressed himself in Christ. Jesus is God’s Story.
  3. 1:1 The Living Expression (Christ) fully possesses every attribute of deity held by God the Father (Col. 1:15–20). The Living Expression existed eternally as a separate individual but essentially the same, as one with the Father.
  4. 1:2 The Greek word used here and the Hebraic concept conveyed is that of being before God’s face. There is no Hebrew word for “presence” (i.e., the “presence” of God), only the word “face.”
  5. 1:2 Both Gen. 1:1 and John 1:1–2 speak of the beginning. In Genesis Moses spoke of the beginning of time, but John speaks of eternity past, a beginning before time existed. The Living Expression is Christ who existed eternally as part of the Trinity. He has no beginning, being one with the Father.
  6. 1:3 Or “all things happened because of him and nothing happened apart from him.” The Aramaic is “everything was in his hand” (of power). See Ps. 33:6; Isa. 44:24.
  7. 1:4 See Ps. 36:9. The Aramaic reads “In him were lives” (plural)—not only multiple human lives, but also spiritual life, eternal life, and life in every form. John used the word life (zoe) thirty-seven times in his gospel.
  8. 1:4 Jesus Christ brings the light of eternal life and the full revelation of God (Heb. 1:2–3). The Gospel of John is easily divided into three sections: life (chs. 1–7), light (chs. 8–12), and love (chs. 13–21).
  9. 1:5 The Greek has a double meaning here. (1) Darkness could not diminish this Light, nor could it comprehend it. (2) The darkness can also be a metaphor for the sons of darkness.
  10. 1:6 This is John, the Baptizer. See Mal. 3:1.
  11. 1:9 Or “the True [Genuine, Perfect] Light.”
  12. 1:9 Or “to enlighten everyone.”
  13. 1:10 Or “the world [of humanity] didn’t perceive it.”
  14. 1:11 Or “to his own” (things or people).
  15. 1:12 Or “those who are putting faith into his name.” To “lay hold of his name” means to believe everything he represents and put into practice what he taught in the power of his name.
  16. 1:13 Or “not from streams of blood” (i.e., the blood of a father and mother). Although many translations connect this verse with the children of God (v. 12), the old Latin translation as well as two church fathers, Irenaeus and Tertullian, argue that it is John’s reference to the virgin birth of Christ (also v. 14).
  17. 1:13 Or “from the natural realm.”
  18. 1:13 Or “born out from God.” The Living Expression (message) is now “humanized” (and become the messenger). However, the vast majority of translations and expositors see here not Jesus’ virgin birth, but the new birth of those who became “children of God” in v. 12. Both are clearly presented in the Scriptures.
  19. 1:14 Or “became visible.”
  20. 1:14 Or “live within us.” This is the fulfillment of Isa. 7:14. The “God with us” is Jesus Christ our Immanuel. He is among us in that he is in human form, and is still in human form within the Trinity eternally. The Greek and Aramaic can be translated “he pitched his tent among us.” John’s wording takes us back into the book of Exodus where: (1) God came down and lived in the tent (tabernacle) in the wilderness (Ex. 25:8). (2) God revealed his glory in the pillar of fire and cloud (Ex. 40:38). (3) God identified himself as the One and Only (“I am Yahweh your God . . . You may have no gods other than me,” [Ex. 20:2; Deut. 6:4]). (4) God proclaimed his wrap-around love (Ex. 34:6).
  21. 1:14 The Aramaic is “We gazed upon his preciousness.” John gazed upon Jesus’ unveiled glory on the Mount of Transfiguration (Matt. 17:1–8).
  22. 1:14 The Aramaic is “Unique and Beloved Son.” The Greek word, monogenes, means “of a single [mono] kind [genes].” This word is also used for Isaac in Heb. 11:17 as Abraham’s uniquely precious son, but not his only one.
  23. 1:14 The Aramaic word, taybootha, means “loving kindness or goodness.” The Greek word is charis, which can also be translated, “grace, favor, sweetness, pleasure or delight.” This translation has combined all those concepts in the words tender mercy. Truly, Jesus Christ is full of everything that our hearts crave.
  24. 1:15 This reveals the eternal nature of Jesus Christ, for John was older than Jesus. The Aramaic can be translated “He is preferred before me, for he has priority over me.”
  25. 1:16 Or “out of his fullness we are fulfilled” (Aramaic). That is, every believer receives from the fullness of Christ a divine completeness. We are given from him whatever each requires for the perfection of his character and for the fulfillment of his life’s purpose. See Eph 1:23; Col 1:19; 2:9.
  26. 1:16 Or “one gracious gift after another.”
  27. 1:17 Moses was the lawgiver, Jesus is the grace-giver. In the first miracle of Moses, he turned water into blood, resulting in death. In the first miracle of grace, Jesus turned water into wine, resulting in life and celebration.
  28. 1:18 Or “from the lap of the Father.” This is an idiom for the place of closest intimacy.
  29. 1:18 Or “He has led the way into the knowledge of God.” The Greek word, exēgēomai, can mean either “to lead the way” or “to explain.”
  30. 1:19 Or simply, “Jews,” a metonymy for “Jewish leaders.” Obviously, not all Jews opposed John’s ministry. Some estimate that John and his disciples baptized as many as one million people. It is possible that John was a part of the Essene community of devout Jews.
  31. 1:19 Or “Levites.”
  32. 1:21 See Deut. 18:15. In Acts 3:22 Jesus is identified as that “Prophet.”
  33. 1:23 As translated from the Aramaic. See Isa. 40:3. The Aramaic is clear that the preparations are for the Lord Yahweh, signifying the deity of Jesus Christ. The Greek is “Make straight the way for the Lord [kurios].”
  34. 1:24 Or “separated ones.” They were the religious leaders of the day who considered themselves separated from sin and closer to God than other people.
  35. 1:26–27 As translated from the Aramaic.
  36. 1:28 This was a different Bethany than the one near Jerusalem, commonly referred to in the Gospels. Some Greek manuscripts have the location as “Bethabara,” however, the Aramaic is clearly Bethany.
  37. 1:28 As translated from the Aramaic. This place of crossing is likely where the children of Israel crossed into the promised land when the Jordan River parted and they passed through on dry land. See Josh. 3. This place is a powerful reminder of crossing over into a new day, a new era for Israel. God chose this place for John to baptize.
  38. 1:29 Jesus was publicly washed as the Lamb of God and proven to be without flaw or blemish, ready to become the sacrifice for all the world. Although he will become the Lion of the tribe of Judah in resurrection power, John points to him as the meek Lamb, a willing sacrifice for our sins.
  39. 1:29 Or “lift off” (the burden). The Greek word used here is often used for “lifting up and away” an anchor from off the ocean floor.
  40. 1:29 The Aramaic is “the sins of the universe.” To take away our sins is a figure of speech that means “he will break sin’s grip from humanity, taking away both its guilt and power from those who believe.”
  41. 1:30 As translated from the Aramaic.
  42. 1:32 Jesus, the Lamb, took away our sins, and the Holy Spirit, the Dove, brings to man the life of God. Jesus didn’t come to start a movement but to bring the fullness of life to us. This “Dove” points to the dove that Noah released from the ark. It found no place to rest in a fallen world. The final time Noah released the dove it flew and never returned. It flew throughout history over Abraham and the patriarchs, over the prophets and kings, finding no place to rest, until at last, there was a heavenly man who carried the life of heaven—upon him the dove (Holy Spirit) rested and remained. There was nothing that could offend heaven in the life of our Lord Jesus.
  43. 1:33 Or “the Spirit of Holiness.”
  44. 1:34 Some Greek manuscripts have “the Chosen One of God.” The Aramaic is clearly “the Son of Elohim.”
  45. 1:35–36 To the Western gentile in the twenty-first century, the phrase “Lamb of God” evokes a fluffy pet. To John and his disciples, lambs were for sacrifice.
  46. 1:38 This is the first recorded saying of Jesus in the Gospels. It is a question that every follower of Jesus should be asked: “What do you want in following me?” Do we want something only for ourselves? A ministry? Answers to prayer? Or do we simply want to be with him? Their answer, “Where are you staying?” shows that they were seeking only him. The first question God asked Adam and Eve was, “Where are you?” The first words of the God-man were, “What do you want?”
  47. 1:38 The parenthetical words are added by the author, John. Rabbi is an honorific term that means more than teacher. The Aramaic word is best translated “Master,” or “Master Teacher.”
  48. 1:38 Or “Where do you abide?” This is the same word used in ch. 15:4 where it refers to life-union, to be joined to Jesus as the living vine. Jesus wants everyone to come and discover where he “abides” in life-union with his Father. See Song. 1:7.
  49. 1:40–41 Andrew means “brave.”
  50. 1:40–41 Or “Messiah.” The word messiah is taken from the Hebrew verb, “to anoint with oil.” In the Old Testament, both priests (Lev. 21:10) and kings (1 Sam. 15:1) were anointed. In the New Testament, Jesus is the Anointed One (Luke 4:18; Acts 10:38) to deliver, to save, and to reconcile us back to God.
  51. 1:42 The Aramaic can also be translated “You are Simon, son of the dove.” Simon means “one who hears.”
  52. 1:42 The Aramaic word is keefa, which means “rock.” It is anglicized as “Peter.” This parenthetical statement is not found in the Aramaic, but only in Greek manuscripts. It appears that the Greek text is admitting it is a translation from the Aramaic.
  53. 1:44 Bethsaida means “place of fishing,” and was a village on Lake Galilee.
  54. 1:45 Nathanael means “gift of God.” Most scholars agree that he is the same one as the Bartholomew mentioned as one of Jesus’ apostles. Almost every time Philip’s name is listed as an apostle, it is followed by Bartholomew.
  55. 1:46 Jesus and his disciples were Galileans and spoke the northern dialect of Aramaic. Galileans were considered somewhat backward. Isaiah called that region “the land of the gentile peoples, those surrounded with great darkness.” Yet this was the region where the Messiah’s light would shine forth. See Isa. 9:1–2; Matt. 4:15–16.
  56. 1:48 Although we can only speculate what Nathanael was doing while sitting under the fig tree, it mattered very personally to him. Perhaps, he was confessing to God his love for him and his desire to be pure and holy. Or perhaps, he was meditating on the Scriptures that speak of the coming Messiah. A fig tree is often a biblical metaphor of God’s purpose and destiny coming to fruitfulness, especially as it relates to establishing God’s kingdom on the earth. See Mic. 4:4; Zech. 3:10. Some scholars speculate that the phrase “I saw you under the fig tree” could be an Aramaic idiom for “I knew you since you were in the cradle.” Some Jewish scholars see the term “under the fig tree” as an ancient Jewish idiom that means studying the messianic prophecies. The idiom stems from Mic. 4:4, in a passage describing the future messianic kingdom: “Each of them will sit under their vine, and under their fig tree.”
  57. 1:51 As translated from the Aramaic. John records Jesus using this phrase twenty-five times. The Greek is “Amen, amen I say to you.”
  58. 1:51 As translated from the Aramaic.
  59. 1:51 Or “you [plural] will spiritually see.” This is a promise for every believer today.
  60. 1:51 “Son of Man” is a messianic term pointing to Christ, not as the son of a man, but the Son of Man (humanity). He is not Joseph’s son, but the Son of God.
  61. 1:51 The “stairway into the sky” is an obvious reference to “Jacob’s Ladder” as the fulfillment of his dream found in Gen. 28:10–22. Jesus Christ is that stairway that joins earth to heaven and brings heaven to earth. The word for “angels” can also be translated “messengers” and could be humans given access into the heavenly realm through the blood of Jesus. Jesus, as the stairway, was both in heaven and on earth as he spoke this to Nathanael. What mysteries surround him!
  62. 1:51 Or “next to.”
  63. 2:1 This was a Tuesday as counted by the Hebrew week beginning on Sunday. The “third day” was chosen as the wedding day in ancient Judaism because it is only on the third day of creation that God said “It was good” twice (see Gen. 1:10, 12). Thus, the Jews considered the day twice blessed. Tuesdays were ideal for Jewish weddings, for that gave the guests time to get there after the Sabbath and remain for the multiple days of the wedding feast. The third day is also a picture of the day of resurrection glory, the day Jesus rose from the dead. This miracle is a revelation of moving from death to resurrection life, water to wine.
  64. 2:1 Cana means “land of reeds,” which points to the weak and fragile nature of man. See Isa. 42:3; Matt. 11:7; 12:20.
  65. 2:2–3 This wedding likely involved someone of Jesus’ family since Mary and all his disciples were also in attendance. A Near Eastern wedding would often last between three and seven days.
  66. 2:2–3 Interpreting Mary’s words for today we could say, “Religion has failed, it has run out of wine.” The traditions of religion cannot gladden the heart, but Jesus can (Ps. 104:15). Moses (the law) turned water into blood, but Jesus (grace) turned water into wine.
  67. 2:2–3 This is a dilemma that Mary is hoping Jesus will solve by performing a miracle. Mary had no doubt about the power and anointing of her Son. Running out of wine is a picture of how the joy of this world runs out and fades away.
  68. 2:4 Or literally “Woman, what is that for you and for me?” This is an Aramaic idiom meaning, “What do we have in common if I do this?” For Mary, it would change very little, but for Jesus, this would be his first public miracle and would dramatically change his ministry from that moment on because the crowds would see the power that he possessed. Jesus knew his miracle ministry would “come out of hiding” by performing a miracle. Yet with Mary’s encouragement, Jesus proceeded to do just that.
  69. 2:6 Six is the number for man, for man was made on the sixth day. These six stone jars could represent man’s method of helping others. It is nothing but water. But Jesus changes the water of the Word of God into the wine of the Spirit. True spiritual life can fill our vessel as we bring joy to the world. The fruit of the Spirit includes joy, and there is no limit to the joy available for the child of God. See Gal. 5:22–23.
  70. 2:6 This was an outward purification (baptism) for worshipers coming into a synagogue.
  71. 2:10 Jesus delights in your joy more than you know. He does not withhold joy from his people. He created between 120 and 150 gallons of the very best wine for a wedding feast! This was one of five miracles that are unique to John’s Gospel. The other four are: healing the rich man’s son (John 4), healing the crippled man at Bethesda (John 5), healing the blind man (John 9), and raising Lazarus from the dead (John 11).
  72. 2:11 Chapters 2–12 could rightly be called “The Book of Signs,” and chs. 13–21 “The Book of Glories.”
  73. 2:11 Or “The disciples made known his glory and believed in him.”
  74. 2:12 Capernaum means “the village of Nahum” which in turn means “the village of the comforted.” Jesus did many miracles and made his Galilean base of ministry in “the village of the comforted.”
  75. 2:13 From Capernaum to Jerusalem was a journey of nearly one hundred miles.
  76. 2:14 These money changers would exchange Roman currency into Jewish currency to pay the temple tax. The leadership of the temple considered the Roman currency to be unclean, so the money changers had a captive audience.
  77. 2:15 Jesus came to sacrifice his life, which would end animal sacrifices and the financial tyranny of religion.
  78. 2:16 Or “the dove dealers.”
  79. 2:17 See Ps. 69:9.
  80. 2:19 Or “sanctuary.”
  81. 2:20 Our bodies (temples) have forty-six chromosomes in every cell.
  82. 2:21 Resurrection power would be the sign of his supreme authority. Jesus’ death and resurrection effectively dismantled the need for the temple, for now his powerful gospel of the kingdom realm has built us into a holy temple not made with hands. See Mark 14:58; 1 Cor. 3:16; 6:19. Jesus’ symbolic form of speaking was so different than the teachings of the Pharisees, as it is to the understanding of many Christians today. The God who was once worshiped by animal sacrifices is now to be worshiped in spirit and truth, and every believer serves as a priest.
  83. 3:1 Nicodemus means “conqueror.” Here we see a distinguished and moral man speaking with Jesus. In the next chapter, we will see an immoral woman coming to know Jesus, the woman at Jacob’s well.
  84. 3:3 The Greek word can be translated “born from above.” However, in the context Nicodemus understood it as a rebirth. The Aramaic word is clearly “born from the origin.” Nicodemus came seeking knowledge; Jesus offered him life.
  85. 3:5 The pure water of the Word of God cleanses us and gives us life. See Eph. 5:25–26; James 1:18; 1 Peter 1:23. Some see in the water and Spirit analogy the creative beginning of Gen. 1, where God’s life-giving Spirit fluttered over the chaotic waters. New creation life comes the same way. Water and blood gushed from the side of our Lord Jesus. He was the last Adam who gave birth to his bride from his pierced side.
  86. 3:7 Or “say to you all.”
  87. 3:7 A common poetic form of Hebraic teaching is to use a play on words, which Jesus utilizes in this poetic masterpiece with multiple words containing dual meanings. The word for “reborn” can also be translated “born from above.”
  88. 3:8 The word for “blow” can also be translated “breathe.” The word for “sound” can be translated “voice.” And the same word for “Spirit” can also mean “wind.” If our new birth is so mysterious, how much more will be the ways of living each moment by the movement of the Holy Spirit? One can understand how confused Nicodemus was, for he took everything at face value and couldn’t see a deeper meaning.
  89. 3:8 Or “The Spirit moves you as he chooses, and you hear his voice, but you don’t know where he came from or where he goes.” The Aramaic is so rich and multilayered in this passage. Perhaps it could be paraphrased as “The wind, the breath, and the Spirit are moved by mysterious moods and in their own wonderful ways. When you feel their touch and hear their voices, you know they are real, but you don’t understand how they flow and move over the earth. The same mysterious way is the way of everyone born by wind, breath, and Spirit.”
  90. 3:13 Jesus shared a mystery with Nicodemus. While he was on the earth ministering, Jesus was also in heaven in the spirit realm. Being in two places at the same time is also the privilege given to every believer. We are at the same time seated with Christ in the heavenly realm, but also living our life on earth to please him. This is what it means to be “in Christ.” See Eph. 2:6; Col. 3:1–5. In the realm of the Spirit, heaven and earth are one. Jesus was telling Nicodemus that only those who are seated in the heavenly realm will understand spiritual truths. See 1 Cor. 2:1–10. Most Greek manuscripts read “the Son of Man who came from heaven.” But the Aramaic is clearly “who is in heaven.”
  91. 3:14 See Num. 21:8–9. The brass snake symbolizes sin and disease. The Hebrew uses a word, seraph, which means a fiery one (fiery serpent). All of humanity has been bitten by the “snake of sin,” but Jesus was raised up on a cross for all people to see. We only need to look to him and believe, and we are healed and saved from sin.
  92. 3:15 The Aramaic participle can also be “believe on him” or “believe into him,” which could explain the variations found in the Greek text.
  93. 3:16 Or “God proved he loved the world by giving his Son.”
  94. 3:16 Or “believe into him.” Salvation and regeneration come only by faith. True faith (Gr. pistis) contains a number of components: acceptance, embracing something (someone) as truth, union with God and his Word, and an inner confidence that God alone is enough.
  95. 3:17 The Aramaic is “so that they shall live by his hand” (of power).
  96. 3:18 Or “one and only Son.”
  97. 3:21 Or “practice the truth.”
  98. 3:21 Some scholars believe that vv. 16–21 are explanatory material supplied by John, the author, rather than the words of Jesus.
  99. 3:23 The Aramaic location is Ainyon, which in Aramaic means “the spring of doves,” or “dove’s eyes.” The Greek manuscripts have transliterated this to Aenon.
  100. 3:23 Or in Aramaic, Shalim, which means “to follow.” One ancient tradition refers to this location to be eight miles south of the town of Scythopolis, or Beit She’an.
  101. 3:25 Or “purification.” The implication is that the Jewish man was telling John’s disciples that Jesus’ baptism was better than John’s.
  102. 3:27 Or “No one of his own will can receive anything unless it comes to him from heaven.”
  103. 3:29 See Isa. 62:5; Rev. 21:9.
  104. 3:29 Or “family member.”
  105. 3:30 The increase of Christ in v. 30 is the bride of Christ in v. 29. We are the increase of Christ as his counterpart. Just as Eve was the increase of Adam, the bride is the increase of Christ on the earth.
  106. 3:30 Or “He is destined to become greater, and I must be pruned.” Some translations end John the Baptizer’s words here and make vv. 31–36 the words of John the apostle.
  107. 3:33 The Aramaic is “Those who accept his testimony take God’s true seal (upon them).”
  108. 3:34 Or “the Spirit does not give anything in small measures.” There is some textual evidence that this verse is saying, “The Son gives the Spirit [to his people] without measure.”
  109. 3:35 The text is simply “he has given all into his hands.” The “all” can be all things, or “all authority,” but can also mean “all people.”
  110. 3:36 The Aramaic can be translated “those who do not cling to the Son.”
  111. 3:36 As translated from the Aramaic. The Greek is “wrath rests upon them.”
  112. 4:3 Some manuscripts have “The Lord.” This is included here from v. 1 for the sake of the English narrative.
  113. 4:4 Since the Jews despised the Samaritans, they often traveled east of the Jordan River to avoid Samaria while traveling between Judaea and Galilee. The Jews wanted nothing to do with the Samaritans because they had mixed Jewish and gentile blood and centered their worship at Mount Gerizim instead of Jerusalem. The Lord Jesus needed to pass through Samaria because there were needy souls who needed a Savior.
  114. 4:5 Sychar lies near modern-day Nablus in the northern region of the West Bank. A village named Askar, which was formerly known as Sychar, lies about one kilometer north of the well.
  115. 4:6–8 Jacob’s well was “a spring-fed well.” This well becomes a picture of the “spring” of the Jacob-life inside of every one of us. Fed by Adam’s fall, this spring has flowed through all of humanity. But Jesus sat as a “lid” to Jacob’s well, sealing its polluted stream. In Christ, Jacob’s clever striving has ended. A living well became a lid to Jacob’s well as Jesus sat there ready to give his living water to all who would come and drink. A well sat upon a well.
  116. 4:6–8 The “water” Jesus wanted was the refreshing, satisfying pleasure of her devotion. He says to each one of us, “Nothing satisfies me except you.” When the sinner drank of the Savior and the Savior drank of the sinner, both were satisfied. Neither ate or drank, but each satisfied the other.
  117. 4:11 The woman used the Greek title kurios (“lord”) when she addressed Jesus. However, kurios is not a word used here for “exalted or sovereign Lord,” but more like “sir.”
  118. 4:14 The Greek verb for “springing up” is hallomenou, and is never used for inanimate objects (water). It is a verb used for people (living things) and means “jumping” or “leaping up.” The Septuagint translates this verb elsewhere as an activity of the Holy Spirit.
  119. 4:18 In a sense, every one of us has married five husbands: our five senses. The six men speak of our fallen humanity, for six is the number of man (who was created on the sixth day). Our heart can never be satisfied with what is on this earth; we must drink the living water that comes from heaven. Christ is the seventh husband, the only One who satisfies. Christ is the real husband. See 2 Cor. 11:2.
  120. 4:18 After offering the woman living water, Jesus first confronted her with her sin and steered her away from religious debates (the proper place to worship, v. 20), and unveiled himself to her as the true Messiah. Jesus does the same thing to everyone who comes to him.
  121. 4:20 This “nearby mountain” is most likely Mount Gerizim where the Samaritans had a shrine to worship God. However, Jacob’s well lies at the base of Mount Ebal, the mountain that Yahweh told the Levites to curse. See Deut. 27:12–26; Josh. 8:33. Both Gerizim and Ebal are mountains in Samaria.
  122. 4:21 The Aramaic word for “worship,” seged, means “to bow down” or “to surrender.”
  123. 4:22 Or “the life-givers are from the Jews.”
  124. 4:23–24 Or “God is breath” or “God is wind.” Jesus referred to “Spirit” more than one hundred times in the four Gospels.
  125. 4:26 Or “I am the I AM who speaks to you.”
  126. 4:29 No doubt, this woman was the talk of the town. Having had five marriages, she was well known for what she had done. For her to say these words was an honest confession of her past. The miracle here is that the people believed her and went out to see for themselves.
  127. 4:30 Although unnamed in the biblical account, church tradition identifies the Samaritan woman to be Photini. An internet search of her name will yield many interesting stories about her post-conversion ministry, including her being named as an “apostle” of Jesus and her eventual martyrdom. Regardless of the validity of the extrabiblical references, history records her as the first New Testament evangelist to win a city to Christ. God is faithful to use anyone to reach others when we are honest to tell others that Jesus knows everything we’ve ever done and still loves us.
  128. 4:32 There is a fascinating word play here in the Aramaic. The word Jesus used isn’t the common word for “food,” but a specific word that means “nutrients.” It also has a homonym more commonly translated “kingdom.” Jesus has a kingdom feast that no one else knows about. He feasts upon the devotion of his bride. See Song. 4:15–16; 5:1. The church is truly the “woman at the well.”
  129. 4:37 See Job 31:8; Mic. 6:15.
  130. 4:38 See Deut. 6:10–11; Josh. 24:13.
  131. 4:42 They acknowledged Jesus not just as the Messiah, but the “Savior of the world,” including the Samaritan people who were outcasts from Judaism. The word Savior in Aramaic is literally translated “Life-Giver.”
  132. 4:43 See v. 44.
  133. 4:45 See John 2:23.
  134. 4:46–47 The distance from Capernaum to Cana was over seventeen miles.
  135. 4:48 Or “You all.”
  136. 4:48 The Samaritans believed without seeing miracles. See John 20:29.
  137. 4:54 There is an interesting parallel in Jesus’ ministry in John with Acts 1:8. Jesus began first in Jerusalem (Nicodemus—John 3), then went to Judea (John 4:1–3), then to Samaria (the Samaritan woman—John 4:4–30), and then to the people with no Jewish heritage (the healing of the nobleman’s son, a gentile—John 4:46–54).
  138. 5:1 It is difficult to determine with certainty which of the feasts it was: Passover, Tabernacles, or Purim. Most of the ancient expositors taught that it was the Feast of Pentecost. There is no mention of the disciples being with him at this time.
  139. 5:2 Literally “the place of the sheep.” The word gate is not in the Greek text. The sick gathered at the pool were like bruised, wounded sheep, needing healing.
  140. 5:2 The present tense is here in the text indicates that when John wrote his Gospel, the pool of Bethesda was still there. However, by AD 68–70, Jerusalem had been destroyed, along with the temple, by the Roman invasion. This would indicate John’s Gospel has an earlier date of origin than believed. It is likely that John wrote his gospel prior to AD 67.
  141. 5:2 Or Bethesda. In Hebrew, Beit-Hesed, meaning “House of Loving Kindness.” The spelling of this varies from manuscript to manuscript. Some have “Bethsaida,” or “Bethsatha,” or “Belzetha (House of the Olive).” Archaeologists have discovered a deep double pool near St. Anne’s Church in Jerusalem surrounded by five porticoes located near the Sheep Gate, confirming the validity of the biblical account. The Sheep Gate is where the sacrificial animals were brought into the temple. This points us to the Lamb of God whose cross and sacrifice brought us healing. There is a pool of mercy near the Sheep Gate.
  142. 5:2 Or “covered walkways” or “alcoves.” The sick were under the “covering” of the Law (the five books of the Torah). But the Law cannot heal; it wounds and brings death (Rom. 7:9–10). Christ is the healer, the living Torah (Matt. 8:16).
  143. 5:4 The majority of manuscripts do not have v. 4, and a few Greek manuscripts do not even have v. 3. However, the absence of the data found in these verses would leave a tremendous gap in the narrative, leaving unanswered why all these sick people would have congregated at the pool of Bethesda, and making v. 7 very confusing. There remains a strong basis found in a diverse set of manuscripts, both Greek and Aramaic, to argue for the inclusion of vv. 3 and 4 here.
  144. 5:5 Under the shelter of religion, there are the sick and lame and blind who can’t be healed unless they do the work and step into the pool. They are helpless and hopeless so near the Sheep Gate. But Jesus puts none of the law’s requirements upon us for our healing, only to believe in one who is greater than angels (Heb. 1:4). The man had been sick for thirty-eight years, the length of time Israel had wandered in the wilderness. See Deut. 2:14.
  145. 5:6 Jesus knew by divine revelation this man’s situation.
  146. 5:6 Or “Are you convinced that you are already made whole?” The Greek phrase genesthai is actually not a future tense (“want to be healed”) but an aorist middle infinitive that indicates something already accomplished. Jesus was asking the crippled man if he was ready to abandon how he saw himself and now receive the faith for his healing (2 Cor. 5:7).
  147. 5:7 The Greek word kurios means “lord” or “sir.”
  148. 5:9 The healed man took his sleeping (resting) mat with him. The Sabbath was meant to be a day of rest, but the healed man carried his Sabbath “rest” with him. The Sabbath is not a day, but a realm of rest that we carry in our hearts.
  149. 5:10 Or “cot” or “stretcher.” The Aramaic word is “quilt” or “mat.”
  150. 5:12 Malice filled the Jewish leaders. They should have been filled with joy that the man was healed. They should have asked, “Who is the wonderful one who healed you?”
  151. 5:14 Or “Don’t continue sinning any longer.”
  152. 5:18 Jesus did not break the Sabbath, he “loosed” it (literal Aramaic) from the bondage of tradition and man-made rules.
  153. 5:18 They clearly understood that Jesus was claiming God as his Father in a unique way.
  154. 5:31 According to the Mosaic laws, a man’s testimony about himself is inadmissible. See Prov. 27:2.
  155. 5:32 This is the Father (see v. 37). Some believe it to be John because of v. 33. However, Jesus states that he does not need human validation.
  156. 5:35 Or “a lantern of chasing flames.”
  157. 5:37 Or “testified about me.” Jesus was referring to the audible voice that God the Father spoke over Jesus at his baptism. For this reason and the reference to God’s voice, this translation has chosen to make it explicit that it refers to the Father’s testimony at Jesus’ baptism. See Luke 3:21–22. The four witnesses of Christ’s glory are: Jesus himself, John the Baptizer, the Father who spoke over his Son, and the miracles of Jesus.
  158. 5:40 There are five witnesses to Christ’s authority and deity in this chapter. Jesus himself (vv. 25–27), John the Baptizer (vv. 32–34), Jesus’ miracles (v. 36), the Father (vv. 36–38), and the Scriptures (vv. 39–40; see also Ps. 40:7).
  159. 5:43 Implied in the text.
  160. 5:45 Jesus prophesied that Moses, on the final judgment day, will be the one to accuse those who would not listen to the laws and teachings of the Torah, which point to their fulfillment in Christ.
  161. 5:47 Apparently this concluded Jesus’ ministry in Jerusalem at this time. The text does not tell us of his return to the province of Galilee.
  162. 6:1 Or “which is also called the Lake of Tiberias.” Tiberias was the largest Jewish city in the Galilee province, located on the western shore of Lake Galilee. This could also be translated “Jesus went beyond Tiberias to Lake Galilee.”
  163. 6:7 Or “two hundred pieces of silver.” This equates to about eight months’ wages of the average person. Philip didn’t answer the question and was focused on how much money it would cost, but Jesus’ question was, “Where will we buy bread?” Jesus was testing Philip to see if he would look to Jesus to supply all that was needed and not consider their limited resources.
  164. 6:9 The Aramaic is literally translated “boy.” However, the Greek uses a word, paidarion, which can also mean a girl or young woman.
  165. 6:10 The number five thousand would have likely been only the number of men in the crowd. Jesus had everyone sit down. To receive bread from Jesus, the Source, doesn’t require that you stand and work hard for it, you simply sit down and rest to be fed the living bread.
  166. 6:11 Barley is the first crop to harvest in Israel. It is a picture of the resurrected Christ. A barley loaf becomes a picture of Christ given to us in resurrection life. He is the firstfruit of resurrection life. See Lev. 23:10; Judg. 7:13–14.
  167. 6:11 When tempted by the devil, Jesus refused to turn stones into bread to satisfy his own hunger. Yet here Jesus multiplied bread to satisfy the hunger of others. Philip was hoping to give each one a little to eat, but Jesus’ supply is always abundant to satisfy the hunger of all.
  168. 6:14 See Deut. 18:15–19.
  169. 6:15 Jesus knew the time of liberating Israel had not yet come. Men don’t just need better government; we need new hearts.
  170. 6:16–17 Capernaum means “the village of Nahum.” Nahum means “comfort” or “the village of comfort.”
  171. 6:18 Or “the Spirit stirred up on their behalf.”
  172. 6:19 Or “three or four miles.” The lake was approximately seven miles across, so they would have rowed about halfway.
  173. 6:20 Or “Fear not. I Am!”
  174. 6:22–23 This information from v. 24 is included here for the sake of the English narrative.
  175. 6:26 Or “Amen, amen, I say unto you” or “Timeless truth I speak unto you.”
  176. 6:27 The Aramaic is “Why would you not seek the food that fastens you to eternal life?”
  177. 6:27 Or “has set his seal (of approval) upon me” or “the Father has sealed me as God with his seal of approval.” The Aramaic word for “seal” can also mean “destine” or “determine.”
  178. 6:30–31 Manna means “What is it?” This is the bread of mystery that became the wilderness food for the Hebrews for more than thirty-eight years.
  179. 6:30–31 See Ex. 16:4–36; Neh. 9:15; Ps. 78:24.
  180. 6:32 The Aramaic is “Timeless truth I speak unto you.”
  181. 6:32 The Aramaic can be translated “a rainbow sign.” Just as Noah was given a rainbow sign of the covenant God was making with him, Jesus’ earthly life was a rainbow sign from heaven of the new covenant life given to every believer today. See Gen. 9; Rev. 4:3; 10:1. The Greek is “true bread out of heaven.”
  182. 6:35 The Aramaic can be translated “I am the living God, the Bread of Life.”
  183. 6:38 As translated from the Aramaic.
  184. 6:40 Or “sees the Son.”
  185. 6:44 The Greek word is “drag” or “pull by force.” The name Moses means “pulled” (from the Nile). The Aramaic is “ransom” or “save.”
  186. 6:45 See Isa. 54:13; Jer. 31:34.
  187. 6:48 Although not found in the Greek text, there are some Aramaic manuscripts that have “I am the living God, the Bread of Life.”
  188. 6:54 To eat his flesh is to take into our life by faith all that Jesus did for us by giving his body for us. To drink his blood is to take by faith all that the blood of Jesus has purchased for us. This “eating” and “drinking” is receiving the life, power, and virtue of all that Jesus is to replace all that we were in Adam. Jesus’ blood and body is the Tree of Life, which is offered to everyone who follows him.
  189. 6:56 The Aramaic is “He that eats my body and drinks my blood is strengthened in me and I in him.”
  190. 6:60 Jesus knew that these words were offending the religious Jews. To eat flesh that was not kosher was a violation of the law; how much more so to eat human flesh. Drinking blood of any kind was also forbidden (Lev. 17:11–12). The imagery is similar to Ezekiel who “ate the scroll” (of the Word, Ezek. 3:1–15).
  191. 6:62 The greatest offense of all will be the cross where Jesus will soon be crucified, and they will watch him surrender his Spirit to the Father in death. See 1 Cor. 1:18–25; Gal. 5:11.
  192. 6:63 The Aramaic is “the body.”
  193. 6:66 Jesus went from feeding five thousand to offending five thousand. They wanted him to feed them, but didn’t want Jesus alone to be their feast.
  194. 6:69 As translated from the Aramaic. Although many Greek scholars believe this is borrowed from the Synoptic Gospels, and is found in variant forms in Greek texts, the Aramaic and many Greek manuscripts have “You are the Christ, the Son of the living God.”
  195. 6:70 The Greek word for “devil” means “slanderer” or “adversary.”
  196. 6:71 Judas is the name Judah. Iscariot was not his last name. There are two possibilities for the meaning of Iscariot. Some believe it is taken from a Hebrew word that means “lock.” Judah the “locksmith.” He most likely was the one who locked the collection bag, which means he had the key and could pilfer the fund at will. It’s his sad history that he wanted to lock up Jesus and control him for his own ends. Other scholars see the possibility that Iscariot is actually “Ish” (man) of “Kerioth” (a town once situated south of Hebron). This would mean Judas was the only non-Galilean among the Twelve.
  197. 7:2 Or “Tents.” See Deut. 16:13.
  198. 7:3 These were actually Jesus’ half brothers, for Joseph was his stepfather.
  199. 7:3 Or “so that your followers can see your miracles.”
  200. 7:5 As translated from the Aramaic and implied in the Greek text. This fulfills the prophecy of Ps. 69:8–9.
  201. 7:12 Or “He leads the people astray.”
  202. 7:16 Or “My doctrine is not my own.”
  203. 7:17 The Aramaic is very poetic: “Whoever is satisfied to do God’s satisfaction shall gain liberating knowledge.”
  204. 7:20 Or “Are you demon possessed?” This is an Aramaic figure of speech for lunacy.
  205. 7:21 Or “one deed.” Although Jesus performed many miracles, it is likely he is referring to the miracle of the lame man being healed in John 5.
  206. 7:22 This is the patriarchs. Circumcision actually began with a sign of the covenant God instituted with Abraham. See Gen. 17.
  207. 7:22 A son was to be circumcised eight days after he was born. See Phil. 3:5.
  208. 7:23 Or “Torah.” Jesus was saying, “Who are you to judge me when you don’t practice what you preach?”
  209. 7:24 Or “Never judge as a hypocrite wearing a mask.”
  210. 7:24 Jesus was teaching that the law of mercy (healing the lame man) overrides the laws of Moses (regulations of the Sabbath). Seeing situations and people with the lens of mercy gives us true discernment.
  211. 7:27 This was a Rabbinical interpretation that was common in that day. However, they knew that the Messiah would come from Bethlehem, for it was prophesied in Mic. 5:2 where the Christ would be born. So in truth, they did not know where Jesus was from.
  212. 7:28 Or “truthful.”
  213. 7:29 Or “I am from next to him.” The Aramaic is “from his presence I am.”
  214. 7:32 Or “separated ones.”
  215. 7:34 In this tremendous statement, Jesus was telling them that he was about to return to the realm where I AM dwells. Of course, the Jewish leaders didn’t understand the impact of what he was telling them.
  216. 7:34 Jesus was speaking of his approaching death on the cross, which he knew was near, and his ascension back to the Father, the realm of I AM.
  217. 7:35 There were many of the tribes of Israel who were scattered at that time in Assyria, Iran, Afghanistan, and other adjacent nations. These had been taken captive by the kings of Assyria in 722 BC. See 2 Kings 17–18.
  218. 7:37 When man’s feasting is over there is still thirst. Jesus comes at the last day of the feast to satisfy the thirst of those who seek God. Only the Lord Jesus can quench the spiritual thirst of men by giving them his living water.
  219. 7:38 The root word used here is the same as the River Jordan, which means “flowing” (down).
  220. 7:38 Or “rivers of living water will flow from his throne within.” See Isa. 44:3; 55:1; 58:11; Ezek. 47:1; Rev. 22:1. A drink becomes a river!
  221. 7:39 As translated from the Aramaic.
  222. 7:39 This splendor included the splendor of the cross, the splendor of his resurrection, and the glory of his ascension into heaven. Just as water poured out of the rock that was struck by Moses, so from the wounded side of Jesus living water poured out to heal, save, and bring life to everyone who believes. The Holy Spirit poured out of Christ and into the church at Pentecost.
  223. 7:42 They had an understanding of the Bible but still missed who Jesus was. Bible knowledge alone, without the Holy Spirit opening our hearts and bringing us to Christ, can leave us as a skeptic. They jumped to conclusions, not realizing that Jesus may have been raised in Nazareth in Galilee, but he was born in Bethlehem and was a true descendant of David. See Ps. 89:3–4; Mic. 5:2; Matt. 1:1; 2:1; Luke 2:4.
  224. 7:52 They apparently didn’t know their own Jewish history, for the prophet Jonah, in 580 BC, came from Gathepher, a village only three miles from Nazareth. It is believed that Elijah, Nahum, and Hosea also came from Galilee. Jesus’ Galilean ministry was prophesied in Isa. 9:1–2.
The Passion Translation (TPT)

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