Bible Book List

Psalm 57-60 New English Translation (NET Bible)

Psalm 57[a]

For the music director, according to the al-tashcheth style;[b] a prayer[c] of David, written when he fled from Saul into the cave.[d]

57 Have mercy on me, O God. Have mercy on me.
For in you I have taken shelter.[e]
In the shadow of your wings[f] I take shelter
until trouble passes.
I cry out for help to God Most High,[g]
to the God who vindicates[h] me.
May he send help from heaven and deliver me[i]
from my enemies who hurl insults.[j] (Selah)
May God send his loyal love and faithfulness.
I am surrounded by lions;
I lie down[k] among those who want to devour me,[l]
men whose teeth are spears and arrows,
whose tongues are sharp swords.[m]
Rise up[n] above the sky, O God.
May your splendor cover the whole earth.[o]
They have prepared a net to trap me;[p]
I am discouraged.[q]
They have dug a pit for me.[r]
They will fall[s] into it. (Selah)
I am determined,[t] O God. I am determined.
I will sing and praise you.
Awake, my soul![u]
Awake, O stringed instrument and harp!
I will wake up at dawn.[v]
I will give you thanks before the nations, O Lord.
I will sing praises to you before foreigners.[w]
10 For your loyal love extends beyond the sky,[x]
and your faithfulness reaches the clouds.
11 Rise up[y] above the sky, O God.
May your splendor cover the whole earth.[z]

Psalm 58[aa]

For the music director, according to the al-tashcheth style;[ab] a prayer[ac] of David.

58 Do you rulers really pronounce just decisions?[ad]
Do you judge people[ae] fairly?
No![af] You plan how to do what is unjust;[ag]
you deal out violence in the earth.[ah]
The wicked turn aside from birth;[ai]
liars go astray as soon as they are born.[aj]
Their venom is like that of a snake,[ak]
like a deaf serpent[al] that does not hear,[am]
that does not respond to[an] the magicians,
or to a skilled snake charmer.
O God, break the teeth in their mouths!
Smash the jawbones of the lions, O Lord.
Let them disappear[ao] like water that flows away.[ap]
Let them wither like grass.[aq]
Let them be[ar] like a snail that melts away as it moves along.[as]
Let them be like[at] stillborn babies[au] that never see the sun.
Before the kindling is even placed under your pots,[av]
he[aw] will sweep it away along with both the raw and cooked meat.[ax]
10 The godly[ay] will rejoice when they see vengeance carried out;
they will bathe their feet in the blood of the wicked.
11 Then[az] observers[ba] will say,
“Yes indeed, the godly are rewarded.[bb]
Yes indeed, there is a God who judges[bc] in the earth.”

Psalm 59[bd]

For the music director, according to the al-tashcheth style;[be] a prayer[bf] of David, written when Saul sent men to surround his house and murder him.[bg]

59 Deliver me from my enemies, my God.
Protect me[bh] from those who attack me.[bi]
Deliver me from evildoers.[bj]
Rescue me from violent men.[bk]
For look, they wait to ambush me;[bl]
powerful men stalk[bm] me,
but not because I have rebelled or sinned, O Lord.[bn]
Though I have done nothing wrong,[bo] they are anxious to attack.[bp]
Spring into action and help me. Take notice of me.[bq]
You, O Lord God of Heaven’s Armies,[br] the God of Israel,
rouse yourself and punish[bs] all the nations.
Have no mercy on any treacherous evildoers. (Selah)
They return in the evening;
they growl[bt] like dogs
and prowl around outside[bu] the city.
Look, they hurl insults at me
and openly threaten to kill me,[bv]
for they say,[bw]
“Who hears?”
But you, O Lord, laugh in disgust at them;[bx]
you taunt[by] all the nations.
You are my source of strength. I will wait for you.[bz]
For God is my refuge.[ca]
10 The God who loves me will help me;[cb]
God will enable me to triumph over[cc] my enemies.[cd]
11 Do not strike them dead suddenly,
because then my people might forget the lesson.[ce]
Use your power to make them homeless vagabonds and then bring them down,
O Lord who shields us.[cf]
12 They speak sinful words.[cg]
So let them be trapped by their own pride
and by the curses and lies they speak.
13 Angrily wipe them out. Wipe them out so they vanish.
Let them know that God rules
over Jacob and to the ends of the earth. (Selah)
14 They return in the evening;
they growl[ch] like dogs
and prowl around outside[ci] the city.
15 They wander around looking for something to eat;
they refuse to sleep until they are full.[cj]
16 As for me, I will sing about your strength;
I will praise your loyal love in the morning.
For you are my refuge[ck]
and my place of shelter when I face trouble.[cl]
17 You are my source of strength. I will sing praises to you.[cm]
For God is my refuge,[cn] the God who loves me.[co]

Psalm 60[cp]

For the music director, according to the shushan-eduth style;[cq] a prayer[cr] of David written to instruct others.[cs] It was written when he fought against Aram Naharaim and Aram Zobah. That was when Joab turned back and struck down[ct] 12,000 Edomites[cu] in the Valley of Salt.[cv]

60 O God, you have rejected us.[cw]
You suddenly turned on us in your anger.[cx]
Please restore us![cy]
You made the earth quake; you split it open.[cz]
Repair its breaches, for it is ready to fall.[da]
You have made your people experience hard times;[db]
you have made us drink intoxicating wine.[dc]
You have given your loyal followers[dd] a rallying flag,
so that they might seek safety from the bow.[de] (Selah)
Deliver by your power[df] and answer me,[dg]
so that the ones you love may be safe.[dh]
God has spoken in his sanctuary:[di]
“I will triumph. I will parcel out Shechem;
the Valley of Sukkoth I will measure off.[dj]
Gilead belongs to me,
as does Manasseh.[dk]
Ephraim is my helmet,[dl]
Judah my royal scepter.[dm]
Moab is my washbasin.[dn]
I will make Edom serve me.[do]
I will shout in triumph over Philistia.”[dp]
Who will lead me into the fortified city?
Who will bring me to Edom?[dq]
10 Have you not rejected us, O God?
O God, you do not go into battle with our armies.
11 Give us help against the enemy,
for any help men might offer is futile.[dr]
12 By God’s power we will conquer;[ds]
he will trample down[dt] our enemies.


  1. Psalm 57:1 sn Psalm 57. The psalmist asks for God’s protection and expresses his confidence that his ferocious enemies will be destroyed by their own schemes.
  2. Psalm 57:1 tn Heb “do not destroy.” Perhaps this refers to a particular style of music, a tune title, or a musical instrument. These words also appear in the heading to Pss 58-59, 75.
  3. Psalm 57:1 tn The precise meaning of the Hebrew word מִכְתָּם (miktam), which also appears in the heading to Pss 16, 56, 58-60 is uncertain. HALOT 582-83 s.v. defines it as “inscription.”
  4. Psalm 57:1 sn According to the superscription, David wrote this psalm on the occasion when he fled from Saul and hid in “the cave.” This probably refers to either the incident recorded in 1 Sam 22:1 or to the one recorded in 1 Sam 24:3.
  5. Psalm 57:1 tn Heb “my life has taken shelter.” The Hebrew perfect verbal form probably refers here to a completed action with continuing results.
  6. Psalm 57:1 sn In the shadow of your wings. The metaphor likens God to a protective mother bird (see also Pss 17:8; 36:7).
  7. Psalm 57:2 sn The divine title “Most High” (עֶלְיוֹן, ʿelyon) pictures God as the exalted ruler of the universe who vindicates the innocent and judges the wicked. See especially Ps 47:2.
  8. Psalm 57:2 tn Or “avenges in favor of.”
  9. Psalm 57:3 tn Heb “may he send from heaven and deliver me.” The prefixed verbal forms are understood as jussives expressing the psalmist’s prayer. The second verb, which has a vav (ו) conjunctive prefixed to it, probably indicates purpose. Another option is to take the forms as imperfects expressing confidence, “he will send from heaven and deliver me” (cf. NRSV).
  10. Psalm 57:3 tn Heb “he hurls insults, one who crushes me.” The translation assumes that this line identifies those from whom the psalmist seeks deliverance. (The singular is representative; the psalmist is surrounded by enemies, see v. 4.) Another option is to understand God as the subject of the verb חָרַף (kharaf), which could then be taken as a homonym of the more common root חָרַף (“insult”) meaning “confuse.” In this case “one who crushes me” is the object of the verb. One might translate, “he [God] confuses my enemies.”
  11. Psalm 57:4 tn The cohortative form אֶשְׁכְּבָה (ʾeshkevah, “I lie down”) is problematic, for it does not seem to carry one of the normal functions of the cohortative (resolve or request). One possibility is that the form here is a “pseudo-cohortative” used here in a gnomic sense (IBHS 576-77 §34.5.3b).
  12. Psalm 57:4 tn The Hebrew verb לָהַט (lahat) is here understood as a hapax legomenon meaning “devour” (see HALOT 521 s.v. II להט), a homonym of the more common verb meaning “to burn.” A more traditional interpretation takes the verb from this latter root and translates, “those who are aflame” (see BDB 529 s.v.; cf. NASB “those who breathe forth fire”).
  13. Psalm 57:4 tn Heb “my life, in the midst of lions, I lie down, devouring ones, sons of mankind, their teeth a spear and arrows and their tongue a sharp sword.” The syntax of the verse is difficult. Another option is to take “my life” with the preceding verse. For this to make sense, one must add a verb, perhaps “and may he deliver” (cf. the LXX), before the phrase. One might then translate, “May God send his loyal love and faithfulness and deliver my life.” If one does take “my life” with v. 4, then the parallelism of v. 5 is altered and one might translate: “in the midst of lions I lie down, [among] men who want to devour me, whose teeth….”
  14. Psalm 57:5 tn Or “be exalted.”
  15. Psalm 57:5 tn Heb “over all the earth [be] your splendor.” Though no verb appears, the tone of the statement is a prayer or wish. (Note the imperative form in the preceding line.)
  16. Psalm 57:6 tn Heb “for my feet.”
  17. Psalm 57:6 tn Heb “my life bends low.” The Hebrew term נֶפֶשׁ (nefesh) with a pronominal suffix is often equivalent to a pronoun, especially in poetry (see BDB 660 s.v. נֶפֶשׁ 4.a).
  18. Psalm 57:6 tn Heb “before me.”
  19. Psalm 57:6 tn The perfect form is used rhetorically here to express the psalmist’s certitude. The demise of the enemies is so certain that he can speak of it as already accomplished.
  20. Psalm 57:7 tn Or perhaps “confident”; Heb “my heart is steadfast.” The “heart” is viewed here as the seat of the psalmist’s volition and/or emotions.
  21. Psalm 57:8 tn Heb “glory,” but that makes little sense in the context. Some view כָּבוֹד (kavod, “glory”) here as a metonymy for man’s inner being (see BDB 459 s.v. II כָּבוֹד 5), but it is preferable to emend the form to כְּבֵדִי (kevedi, “my liver”). Like the heart, the liver is viewed as the seat of one’s emotions. See also Pss 16:9; 30:12; 108:1, as well as H. W. Wolff, Anthropology of the Old Testament, 64, and M. Dahood, Psalms (AB), 1:90. For an Ugaritic example of the heart/liver as the source of joy, see G. R. Driver, Canaanite Myths and Legends, 47-48: “her [Anat’s] liver swelled with laughter, her heart was filled with joy, the liver of Anat with triumph.”
  22. Psalm 57:8 tn BDB 1007 s.v. שַׁחַר takes “dawn” as an adverbial accusative, though others understand it as a personified direct object. “Dawn” is used metaphorically for the time of deliverance and vindication the psalmist anticipates. When salvation “dawns,” the psalmist will “wake up” in praise.
  23. Psalm 57:9 tn Or “the peoples.”
  24. Psalm 57:10 tn Heb “for great upon the sky [or “heavens”] [is] your loyal love.”
  25. Psalm 57:11 tn Or “be exalted.”
  26. Psalm 57:11 tn Heb “over all the earth [be] your splendor.” Though no verb appears, the tone of the statement is a prayer or wish. (Note the imperative form in the preceding line.)
  27. Psalm 58:1 sn Psalm 58. The psalmist calls on God to punish corrupt judges because a vivid display of divine judgment will convince observers that God is the just judge of the world who vindicates the godly.
  28. Psalm 58:1 tn Heb “do not destroy.” Perhaps this refers to a particular style of music, a tune title, or a musical instrument. These words also appear in the heading to Pss 57, 59, and 75.
  29. Psalm 58:1 tn The precise meaning of the Hebrew word מִכְתָּם (miktam) which also appears in the heading to Pss 16 and 56-57, 59-60 is uncertain. HALOT 582-83 s.v. defines it as “inscription.”
  30. Psalm 58:1 tn Heb “Really [in] silence, what is right do you speak?” The Hebrew noun אֵלֶם (ʾelem, “silence”) makes little, if any, sense in this context. Some feel that this is an indictment of the addressees’ failure to promote justice; they are silent when they should make just decisions. The present translation assumes an emendation to אֵלִם (ʾelim), which in turn is understood as a defectively written form of אֵילִים (ʾelim, “rulers,” a metaphorical use of אַיִל, ʾayil, “ram”; see Exod 15:15; Ezek 17:13). The rhetorical question is sarcastic, challenging their claim to be just. Elsewhere the collocation of דָּבַר (davar, “speak”) with צֶדֶק (tsedeq, “what is right”) as object means “to speak the truth” (see Ps 52:3; Isa 45:19). Here it refers specifically to declaring what is right in a legal setting, as the next line indicates.
  31. Psalm 58:1 tn Heb “the sons of mankind.” The translation assumes the phrase is the object of the verb “to judge.” Some take it as a vocative, “Do you judge fairly, O sons of mankind?” (Cf. NASB; see Ezek 20:4; 22:2; 23:36.)
  32. Psalm 58:2 tn The particle אַף (ʾaf, “no”) is used here as a strong adversative emphasizing the following statement, which contrasts reality with the rulers’ claim alluded to in the rhetorical questions (see Ps 44:9).
  33. Psalm 58:2 tn Heb “in the heart unjust deeds you do.” The phrase “in the heart” (i.e., “mind”) seems to refer to their plans and motives. The Hebrew noun עַוְלָה (ʿavlah, “injustice”) is collocated with פָּעַל (paʿal, “do”) here and in Job 36:23 and Ps 119:3. Some emend the plural form עוֹלֹת (ʿolot, “unjust deeds”; see Ps 64:6) to the singular עָוֶל (ʿavel, “injustice”; see Job 34:32), taking the final tav (ת) as dittographic (note that the following verbal form begins with tav). Some then understand עָוֶל (ʿavel, “injustice”) as a genitive modifying “heart” and translate, “with a heart of injustice you act.”
  34. Psalm 58:2 tn Heb “in the earth the violence of your hands you weigh out.” The imagery is from the economic realm. The addressees measure out violence, rather than justice, and distribute it like a commodity. This may be ironic, since justice was sometimes viewed as a measuring scale (see Job 31:6).
  35. Psalm 58:3 tn Heb “from the womb.”
  36. Psalm 58:3 tn Heb “speakers of a lie go astray from the womb.”
  37. Psalm 58:4 tn Heb “[there is] venom to them according to the likeness of venom of a snake.”
  38. Psalm 58:4 tn Or perhaps “cobra” (cf. NASB, NIV). Other suggested species of snakes are “asp” (NEB) and “adder” (NRSV).
  39. Psalm 58:4 tn Heb “[that] stops up its ear.” The apparent Hiphil jussive verbal form should be understood as a Qal imperfect with “i” theme vowel (see GKC 168 §63.n).
  40. Psalm 58:5 tn Heb “does not listen to the voice of.”
  41. Psalm 58:7 tn Following the imperatival forms in v. 6, the prefixed verbal form is understood as a jussive expressing the psalmist’s wish. Another option is to take the form as an imperfect (indicative) and translate, “they will scatter” (see v. 9). The verb מָאַס (maʾas; which is a homonym of the more common מָאַס, “to refuse, reject”) appears only here and in Job 7:5, where it is used of a festering wound from which fluid runs or flows.
  42. Psalm 58:7 tn Heb “like water, they go about for themselves.” The translation assumes that the phrase “they go about for themselves” is an implied relative clause modifying “water.” Another option is to take the clause as independent and parallel to what precedes. In this case the enemies would be the subject and the verb could be taken as jussive, “let them wander about.”
  43. Psalm 58:7 tc The syntax of the Hebrew text is difficult and the meaning uncertain. The text reads literally, “he treads his arrows (following the Qere; Kethib has “his arrow”), like they are cut off/dry up.” It is not clear if the verbal root is מָלַל (malal, “circumcise”; BDB 576 s.v. IV מָלַל) or the homonym מָלַל (“wither”; HALOT 593-94 s.v. I מלל). Since the verb מָלַל (“to wither”) is used of vegetation, it is possible that the noun חָצִיר (khatsir, “grass,” which is visually similar to חִצָּיו, khitsayv, “his arrows”) originally appeared in the text. The translation above assumes that the text originally was כְּמוֹ חָצִיר יִתְמֹלָלוּ (kemo khatsir yitmolalu, “like grass let them wither”). If original, it could have been accidentally changed to חִצָּיו כְּמוֹ יִתְמֹלָלוּ (khitsayv kemo yitmolalu, “his arrow(s) like they dry up”) with דָּרַךְ (darakh, “to tread”) being added later in an effort to make sense of “his arrow(s).”
  44. Psalm 58:8 tn There is no “to be” verb in the Hebrew text at this point, but a jussive tone can be assumed based on vv. 6-7.
  45. Psalm 58:8 tn Heb “like a melting snail [that] moves along.” A. Cohen (Psalms [SoBB], 184) explains that the text here alludes “to the popular belief that the slimy trail which the snail leaves in its track is the dissolution of its substance.”
  46. Psalm 58:8 tn The words “let them be like” are supplied in the translation for stylistic reasons. The jussive mood is implied from the preceding context, and “like” is understood by ellipsis (see the previous line).
  47. Psalm 58:8 tn This rare word also appears in Job 3:16 and Eccles 6:3.
  48. Psalm 58:9 tn Heb “before your pots perceive thorns.”
  49. Psalm 58:9 tn Apparently God (v. 6) is the subject of the verb here.
  50. Psalm 58:9 tn Heb “like living, like burning anger he will sweep it away.” The meaning of the text is unclear. The translation assumes that within the cooking metaphor (see the previous line) חַי (khay, “living”) refers here to raw meat (as in 1 Sam 2:15, where it modifies בָּשָׂר, basar, “flesh”) and that חָרוּן (kharun; which always refers to God’s “burning anger” elsewhere) here refers to food that is cooked. The pronominal suffix on the verb “sweep away” apparently refers back to the “thorns” of the preceding line. The image depicts swift and sudden judgment. Before the fire has been adequately kindled and all the meat cooked, the winds of judgment will sweep away everything in their path.
  51. Psalm 58:10 tn The singular is representative here, as is the singular from “wicked” in the next line.
  52. Psalm 58:11 tn Following the imperfects of v. 10, the prefixed verbal form with vav (ו) conjunctive probably indicates a result or consequence of what precedes.
  53. Psalm 58:11 tn Heb “man.” The singular is representative here.
  54. Psalm 58:11 tn Heb “surely [there] is fruit for the godly.”
  55. Psalm 58:11 tn The plural participle is unusual here if the preceding אֱלֹהִים (ʾelohim) is here a plural of majesty, referring to the one true God. Occasionally the plural of majesty does take a plural attributive (see GKC 428-29 §132.h). It is possible that the final mem (ם) on the participle is enclitic, and that it was later misunderstood as a plural ending. Another option is to translate, “Yes indeed, there are gods who judge in the earth.” In this case, the statement reflects the polytheistic mindset of pagan observers who, despite their theological ignorance, nevertheless recognize divine retribution when they see it.
  56. Psalm 59:1 sn Psalm 59. The psalmist calls down judgment on his foreign enemies, whom he compares to ravenous wild dogs.
  57. Psalm 59:1 tn Heb “do not destroy.” Perhaps this refers to a particular style of music, a tune title, or a musical instrument. These words also appear in the superscription to Pss 57-58, 75.
  58. Psalm 59:1 tn The precise meaning of the Hebrew word מִכְתָּם (miktam), which also appears in the heading to Pss 16, 56-58, 60 is uncertain. HALOT 582-83 s.v. defines it as “inscription.”
  59. Psalm 59:1 tn Heb “when Saul sent and they watched his house in order to kill him.”sn According to the superscription, David wrote this psalm on the occasion when Saul sent assassins to surround David’s house and kill him in the morning (see 1 Sam 19:11). However, the psalm itself mentions foreign enemies (vv. 5, 8). Perhaps these references reflect a later adaptation of an original Davidic psalm.
  60. Psalm 59:1 tn Or “make me secure”; Heb “set me on high.”
  61. Psalm 59:1 tn Heb “from those who raise themselves up [against] me.”
  62. Psalm 59:2 tn Heb “from the workers of wickedness.”
  63. Psalm 59:2 tn Heb “from men of bloodshed.”
  64. Psalm 59:3 tn Heb “my life.”
  65. Psalm 59:3 tn The Hebrew verb is from the root גּוּר (gur), which means “to challenge, attack” in Isa 54:15 and “to stalk” (with hostile intent) in Ps 56:8.
  66. Psalm 59:3 sn The point is that the psalmist’s enemies have no justifiable reason for attacking him. He has neither rebelled or sinned against the Lord.
  67. Psalm 59:4 tn Heb “without sin.”
  68. Psalm 59:4 tn Heb “they run and they are determined.”
  69. Psalm 59:4 tn Heb “arise to meet me and see.” The Hebrew verb קָרָא (qaraʾ, “to meet; to encounter”) here carries the nuance of “to help.”
  70. Psalm 59:5 tn HebLord, God, Hosts.” One expects the construct form אֱלֹהֵי (ʾelohe) before צְבָאוֹת (tsevaʾot, “hosts”). See Ps 89:9, but יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים (yehvah ʾelohim) precedes צְבָאוֹת (tsevaʾot) in Pss 80:4, 19; 84:8 as well.
  71. Psalm 59:5 tn Heb “wake up to punish” (see Pss 35:23; 44:23).
  72. Psalm 59:6 tn Or “howl”; or “bark.”
  73. Psalm 59:6 tn Heb “go around.”
  74. Psalm 59:7 tn Heb “look, they gush forth with their mouth, swords [are] in their lips.”
  75. Psalm 59:7 tn The words “for they say” are supplied in the translation for clarification. The following question (“Who hears?”) is spoken by the psalmist’s enemies, who are confident that no one else can hear their threats against the psalmist. They are aggressive because they feel the psalmist is vulnerable and has no one to help him.
  76. Psalm 59:8 sn Laugh in disgust. See Pss 2:4; 37:13.
  77. Psalm 59:8 tn Or “scoff at”; or “deride”; or “mock” (see Ps 2:4).
  78. Psalm 59:9 tc Heb “his strength, for you I will watch.” “His strength” should be emended to “my strength” (see v. 17). Some also emend אֶשְׁמֹרָה (ʾeshmorah, “I will watch”) to אֱזַמֵּרָה (ʾezammerah, “I will sing praises [to you]”) See v. 17.
  79. Psalm 59:9 tn Or “my elevated place” (see Ps 18:2).
  80. Psalm 59:10 tn Heb “the God of my [Qere (marginal reading); the Kethib (consonantal text) has “his”] loyal love will meet me.”
  81. Psalm 59:10 tn Heb “will cause me to look upon.”
  82. Psalm 59:10 tn Heb “those who watch me [with evil intent].” See also Pss 5:8; 27:11; 54:5; 56:2.
  83. Psalm 59:11 tn Heb “do not kill them, lest my people forget.”sn My people might forget the lesson. Swift, sudden destruction might be quickly forgotten. The psalmist wants God’s judgment to be prolonged so that it might be a continual reminder of divine justice.
  84. Psalm 59:11 tn Heb “make them roam around by your strength and bring them down, O our shield, the Lord.”
  85. Psalm 59:12 tn Heb “the sin of their mouth [is] the word of their lips.”
  86. Psalm 59:14 tn Or “howl”; or “bark.”
  87. Psalm 59:14 tn Heb “go around.”
  88. Psalm 59:15 tn Heb “if they are not full, they stay through the night.”
  89. Psalm 59:16 tn Or “my elevated place” (see Ps 18:2).
  90. Psalm 59:16 tn Heb “and my shelter in the day of my distress.”
  91. Psalm 59:17 tn Heb “my strength, to you I will sing praises.”
  92. Psalm 59:17 tn Or “my elevated place” (see Ps 18:2).
  93. Psalm 59:17 tn Heb “the God of my loyal love.”
  94. Psalm 60:1 sn Psalm 60. The psalmist grieves over Israel’s humiliation, but in response to God’s assuring word, he asks for divine help in battle and expresses his confidence in victory.
  95. Psalm 60:1 tn The Hebrew expression means “lily of the testimony.” It may refer to a particular music style or to a tune title.
  96. Psalm 60:1 tn The precise meaning of the Hebrew word מִכְתָּם (miktam), which also appears in the heading to Pss 16, 56-59, is uncertain. HALOT 582-83 s.v. defines it as “inscription.”
  97. Psalm 60:1 tn Heb “to teach.”
  98. Psalm 60:1 tn In Josh 8:21 and Judg 20:48 the two verbs “turn back” and “strike down” are also juxtaposed. There they refer to a military counter-attack.
  99. Psalm 60:1 tn Heb “12,000 of Edom.” Perhaps one should read אֲרַם (’aram, “Aram”) here rather than אֱדוֹם (’edom, “Edom”).
  100. Psalm 60:1 sn The heading apparently refers to the military campaign recorded in 2 Sam 10 and 1 Chr 19.
  101. Psalm 60:1 sn You have rejected us. See Pss 43:2; 44:9, 23.
  102. Psalm 60:1 tn Heb “you broke out upon us, you were angry.”
  103. Psalm 60:1 tn The imperfect verbal form here expresses the psalmist’s wish or prayer.
  104. Psalm 60:2 tn The verb פָּצַם (patsam, “split open”) occurs only here in the OT. An Arabic cognate means “crack,” and an Aramaic cognate is used in Tg. Jer 22:14 with the meaning “break open, frame.” See BDB 822 s.v. and Jastrow 1205 s.v. פְּצַם.sn You made the earth quake; you split it open. The psalmist uses the imagery of an earthquake to describe the nation’s defeat.
  105. Psalm 60:2 sn It is ready to fall. The earth is compared to a wall that has been broken by the force of the earthquake (note the preceding line) and is ready to collapse.
  106. Psalm 60:3 tn Heb “you have caused your people to see [what is] hard.”
  107. Psalm 60:3 tn Heb “wine of staggering,” that is, intoxicating wine that makes one stagger in drunkenness. Intoxicating wine is here an image of divine judgment that makes its victims stagger like drunkards. See Isa 51:17-23.
  108. Psalm 60:4 tn Heb “those who fear you.”
  109. Psalm 60:4 tn There is a ray of hope in that God has allowed his loyal followers to rally under a battle flag. The translation assumes the verb is from the root נוּס (nus, “flee”) used here in the Hitpolel in the sense of “find safety for oneself” (HALOT 681 s.v. נוס) or “take flight for oneself” (BDB 630-31 s.v. נוּס). Another option is to take the verb as a denominative from נֵס (nes, “flag”) and translate “that it may be displayed” (BDB 651 s.v. II נסס) or “that they may assemble under the banner” (HALOT 704 s.v. II נסס). Here קֹשֶׁט (qoshet) is taken as an Aramaized form of קֶשֶׁת (qeshet, “bow”; BDB 905-6 s.v. קֶשֶׁת), though some understand the homonymic קֹשְׁטְ (qoshet, “truth”) here (see Prov 22:21; cf. NASB). If one follows the latter interpretation, the line may be translated, “so that they might assemble under the banner for the sake of truth.”
  110. Psalm 60:5 tn Heb “right hand.”
  111. Psalm 60:5 tn The Qere (marginal reading) has “me,” while the Kethib (consonantal text) has “us.”
  112. Psalm 60:5 tn Or “may be rescued.” The lines are actually reversed in the Hebrew text, “So that the ones you love may be rescued, deliver by your power and answer me.”
  113. Psalm 60:6 tn Heb “in his holy place.”
  114. Psalm 60:6 sn Shechem stands for the territory west of the Jordan, the Valley of Sukkoth for the region east of the Jordan.
  115. Psalm 60:7 sn Gilead was located east of the Jordan. Half of the tribe of Manasseh lived east of the Jordan in the region of Bashan.
  116. Psalm 60:7 tn Heb “the protection of my head.”sn Ephraim, named after one of Joseph’s sons, was one of two major tribes located west of the Jordan. By comparing Ephraim to a helmet, the Lord suggests that the Ephraimites played a primary role in the defense of his land.
  117. Psalm 60:7 sn Judah, like Ephraim, was the other major tribe west of the Jordan. The Davidic king, symbolized here by the royal scepter, came from this tribe.
  118. Psalm 60:8 sn The metaphor of the washbasin, used to rinse one’s hands and feet, suggests that Moab, in contrast to Israel’s elevated position (vv. 6-7), would be reduced to the status of a servant.
  119. Psalm 60:8 tn Heb “over Edom I will throw my sandal.” The point of the metaphor is not entirely clear. Some interpret this as idiomatic for “taking possession of,” i.e., “I will take possession of Edom.” Others translate עַל (ʿal) as “to” and understand this as referring to a master throwing his dirty sandal to a servant so that the latter might dust it off.
  120. Psalm 60:8 tc Heb “over me, O Philistia, shout in triumph.” The translation follows the text of Ps 108:9. When the initial עֲלֵיוֹ (ʿaleyo, “over”) was misread as עָלַי (ʿalay, “over me”), the first person verb form was probably altered to an imperative to provide better sense to the line.
  121. Psalm 60:9 sn In v. 9 the psalmist speaks again and acknowledges his need for help in battle. He hopes God will volunteer, based on the affirmation of sovereignty over Edom in v. 8, but he is also aware that God has seemingly rejected the nation (v. 10, see also v. 1).
  122. Psalm 60:11 tn Heb “and futile [is] the deliverance of man.”
  123. Psalm 60:12 tn Heb “in God we will accomplish strength.” The statement refers here to military success (see Num 24:18; 1 Sam 14:48; Pss 108:13; 118:15-16).
  124. Psalm 60:12 sn Trample down. On this expression see Ps 44:5.
New English Translation (NET)

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