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Leviticus 13 New English Translation (NET Bible)

Infections on the Skin

13 The Lord spoke to Moses and Aaron: “When someone has[a] a swelling[b] or a scab[c] or a bright spot[d] on the skin of his body[e] that may become a diseased infection,[f] he must be brought to Aaron the priest or one of his sons, the priests.[g] The priest must then examine the infection[h] on the skin of the body, and if the hair[i] in the infection has turned white and the infection appears to be deeper than the skin of the body,[j] then it is a diseased infection,[k] so when the priest examines it[l] he must pronounce the person unclean.[m]

A Bright Spot on the Skin

“If[n] it is a white bright spot on the skin of his body, but it does not appear to be deeper than the skin,[o] and the hair has not turned white, then the priest is to quarantine the person with the infection for seven days.[p] The priest must then examine it on the seventh day, and if,[q] as far as he can see, the infection has stayed the same[r] and has not spread on the skin,[s] then the priest is to quarantine the person for another seven days.[t] The priest must then examine it again on the seventh day,[u] and if[v] the infection has faded and has not spread on the skin, then the priest is to pronounce the person clean.[w] It is a scab,[x] so he must wash his clothes[y] and be clean. If, however, the scab is spreading further[z] on the skin after he has shown himself to the priest for his purification, then he must show himself to the priest a second time. The priest must then examine it,[aa] and if[ab] the scab has spread on the skin, then the priest is to pronounce the person unclean.[ac] It is a disease.

A Swelling on the Skin

“When someone has a diseased infection,[ad] he must be brought to the priest. 10 The priest will then examine it,[ae] and if[af] a white swelling is on the skin, it has turned the hair white, and there is raw flesh in the swelling,[ag] 11 it is a chronic[ah] disease on the skin of his body,[ai] so the priest is to pronounce him unclean.[aj] The priest[ak] must not merely quarantine him, for he is unclean.[al] 12 If, however, the disease breaks out[am] on the skin so that the disease covers all the skin of the person with the infection[an] from his head to his feet, as far as the priest can see,[ao] 13 the priest must then examine it,[ap] and if[aq] the disease covers his whole body, he is to pronounce the person with the infection clean.[ar] He has turned all white, so he is clean.[as] 14 But whenever raw flesh appears in it[at] he will be unclean, 15 so the priest is to examine the raw flesh[au] and pronounce him unclean[av]—it is diseased. 16 If, however,[aw] the raw flesh once again turns white,[ax] then he must come to the priest. 17 The priest will then examine it,[ay] and if[az] the infection has turned white, the priest is to pronounce the person with the infection clean[ba]—he is clean.

A Boil on the Skin

18 “When someone’s body has a boil on its skin[bb] and it heals, 19 and in the place of the boil there is a white swelling or a reddish white bright spot, he must show himself to the priest.[bc] 20 The priest will then examine it,[bd] and if[be] it appears to be deeper than the skin[bf] and its hair has turned white, then the priest is to pronounce the person unclean.[bg] It is a diseased infection that has broken out in the boil.[bh] 21 If, however,[bi] the priest examines it, and[bj] there is no white hair in it, it is not deeper than the skin, and it has faded, then the priest is to quarantine him for seven days.[bk] 22 If[bl] it is spreading farther[bm] on the skin, then the priest is to pronounce him unclean.[bn] It is an infection. 23 But if the bright spot stays in its place and has not spread,[bo] it is the scar of the boil, so the priest is to pronounce him clean.[bp]

A Burn on the Skin

24 “When a body has a burn on its skin[bq] and the raw area of the burn becomes a reddish white or white bright spot, 25 the priest must examine it,[br] and if[bs] the hair has turned white in the bright spot and it appears to be deeper than the skin,[bt] it is a disease that has broken out in the burn.[bu] The priest is to pronounce the person unclean.[bv] It is a diseased infection.[bw] 26 If, however,[bx] the priest examines it and[by] there is no white hair in the bright spot, it is not deeper than the skin,[bz] and it has faded, then the priest is to quarantine him for seven days.[ca] 27 The priest must then examine it on the seventh day, and if it is spreading further[cb] on the skin, then the priest is to pronounce him unclean. It is a diseased infection.[cc] 28 But if the bright spot stays in its place, has not spread on the skin,[cd] and it has faded, then it is the swelling of the burn, so the priest is to pronounce him clean,[ce] because it is the scar of the burn.

Scall on the Head or in the Beard

29 “When a man or a woman has an infection on the head or in the beard,[cf] 30 the priest is to examine the infection,[cg] and if[ch] it appears to be deeper than the skin[ci] and the hair in it is reddish yellow and thin, then the priest is to pronounce the person unclean.[cj] It is scall,[ck] a disease of the head or the beard.[cl] 31 But if the priest examines the scall infection and it does not appear to be deeper than the skin,[cm] and there is no black hair in it, then the priest is to quarantine the person with the scall infection for seven days.[cn] 32 The priest must then examine the infection on the seventh day, and if[co] the scall has not spread, there is no reddish yellow hair in it, and the scall does not appear to be deeper than the skin,[cp] 33 then the individual is to shave himself,[cq] but he must not shave the area affected by the scall,[cr] and the priest is to quarantine the person with the scall for another seven days.[cs] 34 The priest must then examine the scall on the seventh day, and if[ct] the scall has not spread on the skin and it does not appear to be deeper than the skin,[cu] then the priest is to pronounce him clean.[cv] So he is to wash his clothes and be clean. 35 If, however, the scall spreads further[cw] on the skin after his purification, 36 then the priest is to examine it, and if[cx] the scall has spread on the skin the priest is not to search further for reddish yellow hair.[cy] The person[cz] is unclean. 37 If, as far as the priest can see, the scall has stayed the same[da] and black hair has sprouted in it, the scall has been healed; the person is clean. So the priest is to pronounce him clean.[db]

Bright White Spots on the Skin

38 “When a man or a woman has bright spots—white bright spots—on the skin of their body, 39 the priest is to examine them,[dc] and if[dd] the bright spots on the skin of their body are faded white, it is a harmless rash that has broken out on the skin. The person is clean.[de]

Baldness on the Head

40 “When a man’s head is bare so that he is balding in back,[df] he is clean. 41 If his head is bare on the forehead[dg] so that he is balding in front,[dh] he is clean. 42 But if there is a reddish white infection in the back or front bald area, it is a disease breaking out in his back or front bald area. 43 The priest is to examine it,[di] and if[dj] the swelling of the infection is reddish white in the back or the front bald area like the appearance of a disease on the skin of the body,[dk] 44 he is a diseased man. He is unclean. The priest must surely pronounce him unclean because of his infection on his head.[dl]

The Life of the Person with Skin Disease

45 “As for the diseased person who has the infection,[dm] his clothes must be torn, the hair of his head must be unbound, he must cover his mustache,[dn] and he must call out ‘Unclean! Unclean!’ 46 The whole time he has the infection[do] he will be continually unclean. He must live in isolation, and his place of residence must be outside the camp.

Infections in Garments, Cloth, or Leather

47 “When a garment has a diseased infection in it,[dp] whether a wool or linen garment,[dq] 48 or in the warp or woof[dr] of the linen or the wool, or in leather or anything made of leather,[ds] 49 if the infection[dt] in the garment or leather or warp or woof or any article of leather is yellowish green or reddish, it is a diseased infection and it must be shown to the priest. 50 The priest is to examine and then quarantine the article with the infection for seven days.[du] 51 He must then examine the infection on the seventh day. If the infection has spread in the garment, or in the warp, or in the woof, or in the leather—whatever the article into which the leather was made[dv]—the infection is a malignant disease. It is unclean. 52 He must burn the garment or the warp or the woof, whether wool or linen, or any article of leather which has the infection in it. Because it is a malignant disease it must be burned up in the fire. 53 But if the priest examines it and[dw] the infection has not spread in the garment or in the warp or in the woof or in any article of leather, 54 the priest is to command that they wash whatever has the infection and quarantine it for another seven days.[dx] 55 The priest must then examine it after the infection has been washed out, and if[dy] the infection has not changed its appearance[dz] even though the infection has not spread, it is unclean. You must burn it up in the fire. It is a fungus, whether on the back side or front side of the article.[ea] 56 But if the priest has examined it and[eb] the infection has faded after it has been washed, he is to tear it out of[ec] the garment or the leather or the warp or the woof. 57 Then if[ed] it still appears again in the garment or the warp or the woof, or in any article of leather, it is an outbreak. Whatever has the infection in it you must burn up in the fire. 58 But the garment or the warp or the woof or any article of leather which you wash and infection disappears from it[ee] is to be washed a second time and it will be clean.”

Summary of Infection Regulations

59 This is the law[ef] of the diseased infection in the garment of wool or linen, or the warp or woof, or any article of leather, for pronouncing it clean or unclean.[eg]

Footnotes:

  1. Leviticus 13:2 tn Heb “A man, if [or when] he has….” The term for “a man, human being” (אָדָם, ʾadam; see the note on Lev 1:2) in this case refers to any person among “mankind,” male or female, since either could be afflicted with infections on the skin.
  2. Leviticus 13:2 tn Some of the terms for disease or symptoms of disease in this chapter present difficulties for the translator. Most modern English versions render the Hebrew term שְׂאֵת (seʾet) as “swelling,” which has been retained here (see the explanation in J. E. Hartley, Leviticus [WBC], 189). Some have argued that “deeper (עָמֹק, ʿamoq) than the skin of his body” in v. 3 means that “this sore was lower than the surrounding skin” (J. Milgrom, Leviticus [AB], 1:773), in which case “swelling” would be an inappropriate translation of שְׂאֵת in v. 2. Similarly, שְׂאֵת also occurs in v. 19, and then v. 20 raises the issue of whether or not it appears to be “lower (שָׁפָל, shafal) than the skin” (cf. also 14:37 for a mark on the wall of a house), which may mean that the sore sinks below the surface of the skin rather than protruding above it as a swelling would (B. A. Levine, Leviticus [JPSTC], 76-77). Thus, one could translate here, for example, “discoloration” (so Milgrom and II שְׂאֵת “spot, blemish on the skin” in HALOT 1301 s.v. II שְׂאֵת) or “local inflammation, boil, mole” (so Levine). However, one could interpret “lower” as “deeper,” i.e., visibly extending below the surface of the skin into the deeper layers as suggested by J. E. Hartley, Leviticus (WBC), 188, 192. “Swelling” often extends deeply below the surface of the skin, it is certainly a common symptom of skin diseases, and the alternation of these two terms (i.e., “deeper” and “lower”) in vv. 25-26 below shows that they both refer to the same phenomenon (see also the note on v. 20 below), so it is retained in the present translation.
  3. Leviticus 13:2 tn The etymology and meaning of this term is unknown. It could mean “scab” (KJV, ASV, NASB) or possibly “rash” (NIV, NLT), “flaking skin,” or an “eruption” (NRSV) of some sort.
  4. Leviticus 13:2 tn Heb “shiny spot” or “white spot,” but to render this term “white spot” in this chapter would create redundancy in v. 4 where the regular term for “white” occurs alongside this word for “bright spot.”
  5. Leviticus 13:2 tn Heb “in the skin of his flesh” as opposed to the head or the beard (v. 29).
  6. Leviticus 13:2 tn Heb “a mark [or stroke; or plague] of disease.” In some places in this context (vv. 2, 3) it could be translated “a contagious skin disease.” Although the Hebrew term צָרָעַת (tsaraʿat) rendered here “diseased” is translated in many English versions as “leprosy,” it does not refer to Hanson’s disease, which is the modern technical understanding of the term “leprosy” (HALOT 1057 s.v. צָרְעַת a). There has been much discussion of the proper meaning of the term and the disease(s) to which it may refer (see, e.g., J. Milgrom, Leviticus [AB], 1:774-76, 816-26; J. E. Hartley, Leviticus [WBC], 187-89; and the literature cited by them). The further description of the actual condition in the text suggests that the regulations are concerned with any kind of infectious diseases that are observable on the surface of the skin and, in addition to that, penetrate below the surface of the skin (vv. 3-4) or spread further across the surface of the skin (vv. 5-8). It is true that, in the OT, the term “disease” is often associated specifically with white “scaly” skin diseases that resemble the wasting away of the skin after death (see Milgrom who, in fact, translates “scale disease”; cf., e.g., Exod 4:6-7 and Num 12:9-12, esp. v. 12), but here it appears to be a broader term for any skin disease that penetrates deep or spreads far on the body. Scaly skin diseases would be included in this category, but also other types. Thus, a “swelling,” “scab,” or “bright spot” on the skin might be a symptom of disease, but not necessarily so. In this sense, “diseased” is a technical term. The term “infection” can apply to any “mark” on the skin whether it belongs to the category of “disease” or not (compare and contrast v. 3, where the “infection” is not “diseased,” with v. 4, where the “infection” is found to be “diseased”).
  7. Leviticus 13:2 tn Or “it shall be reported to Aaron the priest.” This alternative rendering may be better in light of the parallel use of the same expression in Lev 14:2, where the priest had to go outside the camp in order to inspect the person who had been diseased. Since the rendering “he shall be brought to Aaron the priest” might confuse matters there, this expression should be rendered “it shall be reported” both here in 13:2 (cf. also v. 9) and in 14:2. See, however, the further note on 14:2 below, where it is argued that the diseased person would still need to “be brought” to the priest even if this happened outside the camp. Most English versions retain the idea of the afflicted person being “brought” to the priest for inspection.
  8. Leviticus 13:3 tn Heb “and the priest shall see the infection.”
  9. Leviticus 13:3 tn There is no “if” expressed, but the contrast between the priestly finding in this verse and the next verse clearly implies it.
  10. Leviticus 13:3 tn Heb “and the appearance of the infection is deep ‘from’ (comparative מִן, min, “deeper than”) the skin of the his flesh.” See the note on v. 20 below.
  11. Leviticus 13:3 tn For the translation “diseased infection” see the note on v. 2 above. Cf. TEV “a dreaded skin disease”; NIV “an infectious skin disease”; NLT “a contagious skin disease.”
  12. Leviticus 13:3 tn The pronoun “it” here refers to the “infection,” not the person who has the infection (cf. the object of “examine” at the beginning of the verse).
  13. Leviticus 13:3 tn Heb “he shall make him unclean.” The verb is the Piel of טָמֵא (tameʾ) “to be unclean.” Here it is a so-called “declarative” Piel (i.e., “to declare unclean”), but it also implies that the person is put into the category of actually being “unclean” by the pronouncement itself (J. E. Hartley, Leviticus [WBC], 175; cf. the corresponding opposite in v. 6 below).
  14. Leviticus 13:4 tn Heb “and if.”
  15. Leviticus 13:4 tn Heb “and deep is not its appearance from the skin”; cf. NAB “does not seem to have penetrated below the skin.”
  16. Leviticus 13:4 tn Heb “and the priest will shut up the infection seven days.”
  17. Leviticus 13:5 tn Heb “and behold” (so KJV, ASV).
  18. Leviticus 13:5 tn Heb “the infection has stood in his eyes”; ASV “if in his eyes the plague be at a stay.”
  19. Leviticus 13:5 tn Although there is no expressed “and” at the beginning of this clause, there is in the corresponding clause of v. 6, so it should be assumed here as well.
  20. Leviticus 13:5 tn Heb “a second seven days.”
  21. Leviticus 13:6 tn That is, at the end of the second set of seven days referred to at the end of v. 5, a total of fourteen days after the first appearance before the priest.
  22. Leviticus 13:6 tn Heb “and behold.”
  23. Leviticus 13:6 tn Heb “he shall make him clean.” The verb is the Piel of טָהֵר (taher, “to be clean”). Here it is a so-called “declarative” Piel (i.e., “to declare clean”), but it also implies that the person is put into the category of being “clean” by the pronouncement itself (J. E. Hartley, Leviticus [WBC], 176; cf. the corresponding opposite in v. 3 above).
  24. Leviticus 13:6 tn On the term “scab” see the note on v. 2 above. Cf. NAB “it was merely eczema”; NRSV “only an eruption”; NLT “only a temporary rash.”
  25. Leviticus 13:6 tn Heb “and he shall wash his clothes.”
  26. Leviticus 13:7 tn Heb “And if spreading [infinitive absolute] it spreads [finite verb].” For the infinitive absolute used to highlight contrast rather than emphasis see GKC 343 §113.p.
  27. Leviticus 13:8 tn The “it” is not expressed but is to be understood. It refers to the “infection” (cf. the note on v. 2 above).
  28. Leviticus 13:8 tn Heb “and behold” (so KJV, ASV).
  29. Leviticus 13:8 tn This is the declarative Piel of the verb טָמֵא (tameʾ, cf. the note on v. 3 above).
  30. Leviticus 13:9 tn Heb “When there is an infection of disease in a man.” The term for “a man; a human being” (אָדָם, ʾadam; see the note on Lev 1:2 and cf. v. 2 above) refers to any person among “mankind,” male or female. For the rendering “diseased infection” see the note on v. 2 above.
  31. Leviticus 13:10 tn Heb “and the priest shall see.” The pronoun “it” is unexpressed, but it should be assumed and it refers to the infection (cf. the note on v. 8 above).
  32. Leviticus 13:10 tn Heb “and behold” (so KJV, ASV).
  33. Leviticus 13:10 tn Heb “and rawness [i.e., something living] of living flesh is in the swelling”; KJV, NASB, NRSV “quick raw flesh.”
  34. Leviticus 13:11 tn The term rendered here “chronic” is a Niphal participle meaning “grown old” (HALOT 448 s.v. II ישׁן nif.2). The idea is that this is an old enduring skin disease that keeps on developing or recurring.
  35. Leviticus 13:11 tn Heb “in the skin of his flesh” as opposed to the head or the beard (v. 29; cf. v. 2 above).
  36. Leviticus 13:11 tn This is the declarative Piel of the verb טָמֵא (tameʾ, cf. the note on v. 3 above).
  37. Leviticus 13:11 tn Heb “he”; the referent (the priest) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
  38. Leviticus 13:11 sn Instead of just the normal quarantine isolation, this condition calls for the more drastic and enduring response stated in Lev 13:45-46. Raw flesh, of course, sometimes oozes blood to one degree or another, and blood flows are by nature impure (see, e.g., Lev 12 and 15; cf. J. E. Hartley, Leviticus [WBC], 191).
  39. Leviticus 13:12 tn Heb “And if spreading [infinitive absolute] it spreads out [finite verb].” For the infinitive absolute used to highlight contrast rather than emphasis see GKC 343 §113.p.
  40. Leviticus 13:12 tn Heb “all the skin of the infection,” but see v. 4 above.
  41. Leviticus 13:12 tn Heb “to all the appearance of the eyes of the priest.”
  42. Leviticus 13:13 tn Heb “and the priest shall see.” The pronoun “it” is unexpressed, but it should be assumed and it refers to the infection (cf. the note on v. 8 above).
  43. Leviticus 13:13 tn Heb “and behold” (so KJV, ASV, NASB).
  44. Leviticus 13:13 tn Heb “he shall pronounce the infection clean,” but see v. 4 above. Also, this is another use of the declarative Piel of the verb טָהֵר (taher; cf. the note on v. 6 above).
  45. Leviticus 13:13 tn Heb “all of him has turned white, and he is clean.”
  46. Leviticus 13:14 tn Heb “and in the day of there appears in it living flesh.” Some English versions render this as “open sores” (cf. NCV, TEV, NLT).
  47. Leviticus 13:15 tn Heb “and the priest shall see the living flesh.”
  48. Leviticus 13:15 tn This is the declarative Piel of the verb טָמֵא (tameʾ; cf. the note on v. 3 above).
  49. Leviticus 13:16 tn Heb “Or if/when.”
  50. Leviticus 13:16 tn Heb “the living flesh returns and is turned/changed to white.” The Hebrew verb “returns” is שׁוּב (shuv), which often functions adverbially when combined with a second verb as it is here (cf. “and is turned”) and, in such cases, is usually rendered “again” (see, e.g., GKC 386-87 §120.g). Another suggestion is that here שׁוּב means “to recede” (cf., e.g., 2 Kgs 20:9), so one could translate “the raw flesh recedes and turns white.” This would mean that the new “white” skin “has grown over” the raw flesh (B. A. Levine, Leviticus [JPSTC], 79).
  51. Leviticus 13:17 tn Heb “and the priest shall see it.”
  52. Leviticus 13:17 tn Heb “and behold” (so KJV, ASV, NASB).
  53. Leviticus 13:17 tn Heb “the priest shall pronounce the infection clean,” but see v. 4 above. Also, this is another use of the declarative Piel of the verb טָהֵר (taher, cf. the note on v. 6 above).
  54. Leviticus 13:18 tc Heb (MT) reads, “And flesh if/when there is in it, in its skin, a boil.” Smr has only “in it,” not “in its skin,” and a few medieval Hebrew mss as well as the LXX, Syriac, and Vulgate have only “in its skin” (cf. v. 24 below), not “in it.” It does not effect the meaning of the verse, but one is tempted to suggest that “in it” (בוֹ, vo) was added in error as a partial dittography from the beginning of “in its skin” (בְעֹרוֹ, veʿoro).
  55. Leviticus 13:19 tn Some English versions translate “it shall be shown to [or “be seen by”] the priest,” taking the infection to be the subject of the verb (e.g., KJV, NASB, RSV, NRSV). Based on the Hebrew grammar there is no way to be sure which is intended.
  56. Leviticus 13:20 tn Heb “and the priest shall see.” The pronoun “it” is unexpressed, but it should be assumed and it refers to the infection (cf. the note on v. 8 above).
  57. Leviticus 13:20 tn Heb “and behold.”
  58. Leviticus 13:20 tn Heb “and behold its appearance is low (שָׁפָל, shafal) ‘from’ (comparative מִן, min, “lower than”) the skin.” Compare “deeper” in v. 3 above where, however, a different word is used (עָמֹק, ʿamoq), and see the note on “swelling” in v. 1 above (cf. J. E. Hartley, Leviticus [WBC], 192; note that, contrary to the MT, one Hebrew ms (Cairo Geniza) has עָמֹק in this verse as well as v. 4). The alternation of these two terms (i.e., “deeper” and “lower”) in vv. 25-26 below shows that they both refer to the same phenomenon. Some have argued that “this sore was lower than the surrounding skin” (J. Milgrom, Leviticus [AB], 1:773, 788), in which case “swelling” would be an inappropriate translation of שְׂאֵת (seʾet) in v. 19. It seems unlikely, however, that the surface of a “boil” would sink below the surface of the surrounding skin. The infectious pus etc. that makes up a boil normally causes swelling.
  59. Leviticus 13:20 tn The declarative Piel of the verb טָמֵא (tameʾ, cf. the note on v. 3 above).
  60. Leviticus 13:20 tn Heb “It is an infection of disease. In the boil it has broken out.” For the rendering “diseased infection” see the note on v. 2 above.
  61. Leviticus 13:21 tn Heb “and if.”
  62. Leviticus 13:21 tn Heb “and behold” (so KJV, ASV, NASB).
  63. Leviticus 13:21 tn Heb “and the priest will shut him up seven days.”
  64. Leviticus 13:22 tn Heb “and if.”
  65. Leviticus 13:22 tn Heb “is indeed spreading.”
  66. Leviticus 13:22 tn This is the declarative Piel of the verb טָמֵא (tameʾ, cf. the note on v. 3 above).
  67. Leviticus 13:23 tn Heb “and if under it the bright spot stands, it has not spread.”
  68. Leviticus 13:23 tn This is the declarative Piel of the verb טָהֵר (taher, cf. the note on v. 6 above).
  69. Leviticus 13:24 tn Heb “Or a body, if there is in its skin a burn of fire.”
  70. Leviticus 13:25 tn Heb “and the priest shall see it.”
  71. Leviticus 13:25 tn Heb “and behold” (so KJV, ASV).
  72. Leviticus 13:25 tn Heb “and its appearance is deep ‘from’ [comparative מִן (min) meaning ‘deeper than’] the skin.”
  73. Leviticus 13:25 tn Heb “it is a disease. In the burn it has broken out.”
  74. Leviticus 13:25 tn This is the declarative Piel of the verb טָמֵא (tameʾ; cf. the note on v. 3 above).
  75. Leviticus 13:25 tn For the rendering “diseased infection” see the note on v. 2 above.
  76. Leviticus 13:26 tn Heb “and if.”
  77. Leviticus 13:26 tn Heb “and behold” (so KJV, ASV); NASB “and indeed.”
  78. Leviticus 13:26 tn Heb “and low it is not ‘from’ (comparative מִן, min, “lower than”) the skin.” See the note on v. 20 above. Cf. TEV “not deeper than the surrounding skin.”
  79. Leviticus 13:26 tn Heb “and the priest will shut him up seven days.”
  80. Leviticus 13:27 tn Heb “is indeed spreading.”
  81. Leviticus 13:27 tn For the rendering “diseased infection” see the note on v. 2 above.
  82. Leviticus 13:28 tn Heb “and if under it the bright spot stands, it has not spread in the skin.”
  83. Leviticus 13:28 tn This is the declarative Piel of the verb טָהֵר (taher; cf. the note on v. 6 above).
  84. Leviticus 13:29 tn Heb “And a man or a woman if there is in him an infection in head or in beard.” sn The shift here is from diseases that are on the (relatively) bare skin of the body to the scalp area of the male or female head or the bearded area of the male face.
  85. Leviticus 13:30 tn Heb “and the priest shall see the infection.”
  86. Leviticus 13:30 tn Heb “and behold.”
  87. Leviticus 13:30 tn Heb “its appearance is deep ‘from’ (comparative מִן, min, “deeper than”) the skin.”
  88. Leviticus 13:30 tn This is the declarative Piel of the verb טָמֵא (tameʾ; cf. the note on v. 3 above).
  89. Leviticus 13:30 tn The exact identification of this disease is unknown. Cf. KJV “dry scall”; NASB “a scale”; NIV, NCV, NRSV “an itch”; NLT “a contagious skin disease.” For a discussion of “scall” disease in the hair, which is a crusty scabby disease of the skin under the hair that also affects the hair itself, see J. E. Hartley, Leviticus (WBC), 192-93, and J. Milgrom, Leviticus (AB), 1:793-94. The Hebrew word rendered “scall” (נֶתֶק, neteq) is related to a verb meaning “to tear; to tear out; to tear apart.” It may derive from the scratching and/or the tearing out of the hair or the scales of the skin in response to the itching sensation caused by the disease.
  90. Leviticus 13:30 tn Heb “It is scall. It is the disease of the head or the beard.”
  91. Leviticus 13:31 tn Heb “and behold there is not its appearance deep ‘from’ (comparative מִן, min, meaning “deeper than”) the skin.”
  92. Leviticus 13:31 tn Heb “and the priest will shut up the infection of the scall seven days.”
  93. Leviticus 13:32 tn Heb “and behold” (so KJV, ASV).
  94. Leviticus 13:32 tn Heb “and the appearance of the scall is not deep ‘from’ (comparative מִן, min, meaning “deeper than”) the skin.”
  95. Leviticus 13:33 tn The shaving is done by the one who has the infection. Although KJV, ASV have the passive “he shall be shaven” here, most modern English versions have the reflexive “shall shave himself” (so NAB).
  96. Leviticus 13:33 tn Heb “but the scall shall he not shave” (so KJV, ASV); NIV “except for the diseased area.”
  97. Leviticus 13:33 tn Heb “and the priest will shut up the scall a second seven days.”
  98. Leviticus 13:34 tn Heb “and behold” (so KJV, ASV).
  99. Leviticus 13:34 tn Heb “and its appearance is not deep ‘from’ (comparative מִן, min, meaning “deeper than”) the skin.”
  100. Leviticus 13:34 tn This is the declarative Piel of the verb טָהֵר (taher, cf. the note on v. 6 above).
  101. Leviticus 13:35 tn Heb “And if spreading (infinitive absolute) it spreads further (finite verb).” For the infinitive absolute used to highlight contrast rather than emphasis see GKC 343 §113.p.
  102. Leviticus 13:36 tn Heb “and behold.”
  103. Leviticus 13:36 tn Heb “the priest shall not search to the reddish yellow hair.”
  104. Leviticus 13:36 tn Heb “he”; the referent (the affected person) is specified in the translation for clarity (likewise in the following verse).
  105. Leviticus 13:37 tn Heb “and if in his eyes the infection has stood.”
  106. Leviticus 13:37 tn This is the declarative Piel of the verb טָהֵר (taher, cf. the note on v. 6 above).
  107. Leviticus 13:39 tn Heb “and the priest shall see.”
  108. Leviticus 13:39 tn Heb “and behold” (so KJV, ASV).
  109. Leviticus 13:39 tn Heb “he,” but the regulation applies to a man or a woman (v. 38a). In the translation “the person” is used to specify the referent more clearly.
  110. Leviticus 13:40 tn Heb “And a man, when his head is rubbed bare, he is bald-headed.” The translation offered here, referring to the back of the head (i.e., the area from the top of the head sloping backwards), is based on the contrast between this condition and that of the following verse. See also B. A. Levine, Leviticus (JPSTC), 82.
  111. Leviticus 13:41 tn Heb “And if from the front edge of his face, his head is rubbed bare.” See the note on v. 40 above.
  112. Leviticus 13:41 tn The rendering “balding in front” corresponds to the location of the bareness at the beginning of the verse.
  113. Leviticus 13:43 tn Heb “and the priest shall see it” (cf. KJV). The MT has “him/it” which some take to refer to the person as a whole (i.e., “him”; see, e.g., J. Milgrom, Leviticus [AB], 1:770; NIV, NRSV, etc.), while others take it as a reference to the “infection” (נֶגַע, negaʿ) in v. 42 (J. E. Hartley, Leviticus [WBC], 172, 177). Smr has “her/it,” which would probably refer to “disease” (צָרַעַת, tsaraʿat) in v. 42. The general pattern in the chapter suggests that “it,” either the infection or the disease, is the object of the examination (see, e.g., v. 3 above and v. 50 below).
  114. Leviticus 13:43 tn Heb “and behold.”
  115. Leviticus 13:43 tn Heb “like appearance of disease of skin of flesh.”
  116. Leviticus 13:44 tn Or perhaps translate, “His infection [is] on his head,” as a separate independent sentence (cf. KJV, ASV, NASB, NRSV). There is no causal expression in the Hebrew text connecting these two clauses, but the logical relationship between them seems to be causal.
  117. Leviticus 13:45 tn Heb “And the diseased one who in him is the infection.”
  118. Leviticus 13:45 tn Heb “and his head shall be unbound, and he shall cover on [his] mustache.” Tearing one’s clothing, allowing the hair to hang loose rather than bound up in a turban, and covering the mustache on the upper lip are all ways of expressing shame, grief, or distress (cf., e.g., Lev 10:6 and Micah 3:7).
  119. Leviticus 13:46 tn Heb “All the days which the infection is in him.”
  120. Leviticus 13:47 tn Heb “And the garment, if there is in it a mark of disease.”
  121. Leviticus 13:47 tn Heb “in a wool garment or in a linen garment.”
  122. Leviticus 13:48 sn The warp (vertical) and woof (horizontal) thread may be two different sets of thread not yet woven together, or they may refer to two different kinds of thread already woven, in which case one might have the disease in it while the other does not. See the explanation in J. Milgrom, Leviticus (AB), 1:809-10.
  123. Leviticus 13:48 tn Heb “in any handiwork of skin” (cf. KJV, ASV, NRSV); most other modern English versions have “leather.”
  124. Leviticus 13:49 tn Heb “and the infection is.” This clause is conditional in force, and is translated as such by almost all English versions.
  125. Leviticus 13:50 tn Heb “And the priest shall see the infection and he shall shut up the infection seven days.”
  126. Leviticus 13:51 tn Heb “to all which the leather was made into a handiwork.”
  127. Leviticus 13:53 tn Heb “And if the priest sees and behold”; NASB “and indeed.”
  128. Leviticus 13:54 tn Heb “a second seven days.”
  129. Leviticus 13:55 tn Heb “and behold” (so KJV, ASV).
  130. Leviticus 13:55 tn Heb “the infection has not changed its eye.” Smr has “its/his eyes,” as in vv. 5 and 37, but here it refers to the appearance of the article of cloth or leather, unlike vv. 5 and 37 where there is a preposition attached and it refers to the eyes of the priest.
  131. Leviticus 13:55 tn The terms “back side” and “front side” are the same as those used in v. 42 for the “back or front bald area” of a man’s head. The exact meaning of these terms when applied to articles of cloth or leather is uncertain. It could refer, for example, to the inside versus the outside of a garment, or the back versus the front side of an article of cloth or leather. See J. Milgrom, Leviticus (AB), 1:814, for various possibilities.
  132. Leviticus 13:56 tn Heb “And if the priest saw and behold….”
  133. Leviticus 13:56 tn Heb “and he shall tear it from.”
  134. Leviticus 13:57 tn Heb “And if”; NIV, NCV “But if”; NAB “If, however.”
  135. Leviticus 13:58 tn Heb “and the infection turns aside from them.”
  136. Leviticus 13:59 sn The Hebrew term translated “law” (תּוֹרָה, torah) introduces here a summary or colophon for all of Lev 13. Similar summaries are found in Lev 7:37-38; 11:46-47; 14:54-57; and 15:32-33.
  137. Leviticus 13:59 tn These are declarative Piel forms of the verbs טָהֵר (taher) and טָמֵא (tameʾ) respectively (cf. the notes on vv. 3 and 6 above).
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