A A A A A
Bible Book List

Leviticus 1-7 New English Translation (NET Bible)

Introduction to the Sacrificial Regulations

Then the Lord called to Moses and spoke to him[a] from the Meeting Tent:[b] “Speak to the Israelites and tell them, ‘When[c] someone[d] among you presents an offering[e] to the Lord,[f] you[g] must present your offering from the domesticated animals, either from the herd or from the flock.[h]

Burnt-Offering Regulations: Animal from the Herd

“‘If his offering is a burnt offering[i] from the herd he must present it as a flawless male; he must present it at the entrance[j] of the Meeting Tent for its[k] acceptance before the Lord. He must lay his hand on the head of the burnt offering, and it will be accepted for him to make atonement[l] on his behalf. Then the one presenting the offering[m] must slaughter the bull[n] before the Lord, and the sons of Aaron, the priests, must present the blood and splash[o] the blood against the sides of the altar, which is at the entrance of the Meeting Tent. Next, the one presenting the offering[p] must skin the burnt offering and cut it into parts, and the sons of Aaron, the priest,[q] must put fire on the altar and arrange wood on the fire. Then the sons of Aaron, the priests, must arrange the parts with the head and the suet[r] on the wood that is in the fire on the altar.[s] Finally, the one presenting the offering[t] must wash its entrails and its legs in water and the priest must offer all of it up in smoke on the altar[u]—it is[v] a burnt offering, a gift[w] of a soothing aroma to the Lord.

Animal from the Flock

10 “‘If his offering is from the flock for a burnt offering[x]—from the sheep or the goats—he must present a flawless male, 11 and must slaughter it on the north side of the altar before the Lord, and the sons of Aaron, the priests, will splash its blood against the altar’s sides. 12 Next, the one presenting the offering[y] must cut it into parts, with its head and its suet, and the priest must arrange them on the wood that is in the fire on the altar. 13 Then the one presenting the offering must wash the entrails and the legs in water, and the priest must present all of it and offer it up in smoke on the altar—it is a burnt offering, a gift of a soothing aroma to the Lord.

Offering of Birds

14 “‘If his offering to the Lord is a burnt offering of birds,[z] he must present his offering from the turtledoves or from the young pigeons.[aa] 15 The priest must present it at the altar, pinch off[ab] its head and offer the head[ac] up in smoke on the altar, and its blood must be drained out against the side of the altar. 16 Then the priest[ad] must remove its entrails by cutting off its tail feathers,[ae] and throw them[af] to the east side of the altar into the place of fatty ashes, 17 and tear it open by its wings without dividing it into two parts.[ag] Finally, the priest must offer it up in smoke on the altar on the wood which is in the fire—it is a burnt offering, a gift of a soothing aroma to the Lord.

Grain-Offering Regulations: Offering of Raw Flour

“‘When a person presents a grain offering[ah] to the Lord, his offering must consist of choice wheat flour,[ai] and he must pour olive oil on it and put frankincense[aj] on it. Then he must bring it to the sons of Aaron, the priests, and the priest[ak] must scoop out from there a handful of its choice wheat flour and some of its olive oil in addition to all of its frankincense, and the priest must offer its memorial portion[al] up in smoke on the altar—it is[am] a gift of a soothing aroma to the Lord. The remainder of the grain offering belongs to Aaron and to his sons[an]—it is[ao] most holy[ap] from the gifts of the Lord.

Processed Grain Offerings

“‘When you present an offering of grain baked in an oven, it must be made of[aq] choice wheat flour baked into unleavened loaves[ar] mixed with olive oil or[as] unleavened wafers smeared[at] with olive oil. If your offering is a grain offering made on the griddle, it must be choice wheat flour mixed with olive oil, unleavened. Crumble it in pieces[au] and pour olive oil on it—it is a grain offering. If your offering is a grain offering made in a pan,[av] it must be made of choice wheat flour deep fried in olive oil.[aw]

“‘You must bring the grain offering that must be made from these to the Lord. Present it to the priest,[ax] and he will bring it to the altar. Then the priest must take up[ay] from the grain offering its memorial portion and offer it up in smoke on the altar—it is[az] a gift of a soothing aroma to the Lord. 10 The remainder of the grain offering belongs to Aaron and to his sons—it is[ba] most holy from the gifts of the Lord.

Additional Grain-Offering Regulations

11 “‘No grain offering which you present to the Lord can be made with yeast,[bb] for you must not offer up in smoke any yeast or honey as a gift to the Lord.[bc] 12 You can present them to the Lord as an offering of firstfruit,[bd] but they must not go up to the altar for a soothing aroma. 13 Moreover, you must season every one of your grain offerings with salt; you must not allow the salt of the covenant of your God to be missing from your grain offering[be]—on every one of your grain offerings you must present salt.

14 “‘If you present a grain offering of first ripe grain to the Lord, you must present your grain offering of first ripe grain as soft kernels roasted in fire—crushed bits of fresh grain.[bf] 15 And you must put olive oil on it and set frankincense on it—it is a grain offering. 16 Then the priest must offer its memorial portion up in smoke—some of its crushed bits, some of its olive oil, in addition to all of its frankincense—it is[bg] a gift to the Lord.

Peace-Offering Regulations: Animal from the Herd

“‘Now if his offering is a peace-offering sacrifice,[bh] if he presents an offering from the herd, he must present before the Lord a flawless male or a female.[bi] He must lay his hand on the head of his offering and slaughter it at the entrance of the Meeting Tent, and the sons of Aaron, the priests, must splash the blood against the altar’s sides.[bj] Then the one presenting the offering[bk] must present a gift to the Lord from the peace-offering sacrifice: He must remove the fat that covers the entrails and all the fat that surrounds the entrails,[bl] the two kidneys with the fat on their sinews, and the protruding lobe on the liver (which he is to remove along with the kidneys).[bm] Then the sons of Aaron must offer it up in smoke on the altar atop the burnt offering that is on the wood in the fire as a gift of a soothing aroma to the Lord.[bn]

Animal from the Flock

“‘If his offering for a peace-offering sacrifice to the Lord is from the flock, he must present a flawless male or female.[bo] If he presents a sheep as his offering, he must present it before the Lord. He must lay his hand on the head of his offering and slaughter it before the Meeting Tent, and the sons of Aaron must splash[bp] its blood against the altar’s sides. Then he must present a gift to the Lord from the peace-offering sacrifice: He must remove all the fatty tail up to the end of the spine, the fat covering the entrails, and all the fat on the entrails,[bq] 10 the two kidneys with the fat on their sinews, and the protruding lobe on the liver (which he is to remove along with the kidneys).[br] 11 Then the priest must offer it up in smoke on the altar as a food gift to the Lord.[bs]

12 “‘If his offering is a goat he must present it before the Lord, 13 lay his hand on its head, and slaughter it before the Meeting Tent, and the sons of Aaron must splash its blood against the altar’s sides. 14 Then he must present from it his offering as a gift to the Lord: the fat which covers the entrails and all the fat on the entrails,[bt] 15 the two kidneys with the fat on their sinews, and the protruding lobe on the liver (which he is to remove along with the kidneys).[bu] 16 Then the priest must offer them up in smoke on the altar as a food gift for a soothing aroma—all the fat belongs to the Lord. 17 This is[bv] a perpetual statute throughout your generations[bw] in all the places where you live: You must never eat any fat or any blood.’”[bx]

Sin-Offering Regulations

Then the Lord spoke to Moses:[by] “Tell the Israelites, ‘When a person sins by straying unintentionally[bz] from any of the Lord’s commandments which must not be violated, and violates any[ca] one of them[cb]

For the Priest

“‘If the high priest[cc] sins so that the people are guilty,[cd] on account of the sin he has committed he must present a flawless young bull to the Lord[ce] for a sin offering.[cf] He must bring the bull to the entrance of the Meeting Tent before the Lord, lay his hand on the head of the bull, and slaughter the bull before the Lord. Then that high priest must take some of the blood[cg] of the bull and bring it to the Meeting Tent. The priest must dip his finger in the blood and sprinkle[ch] some of it[ci] seven times before the Lord toward[cj] the front of the special curtain[ck] of the sanctuary. The priest must put some of the blood on the horns of the altar of fragrant incense that is before the Lord in the Meeting Tent, and all the rest of the bull’s blood he must pour out at the base of the altar of burnt offering that is at the entrance of the Meeting Tent.

“‘Then he must take up all the fat from the sin offering bull:[cl] the fat covering the entrails[cm] and all the fat surrounding the entrails,[cn] the two kidneys with the fat on their sinews, and the protruding lobe on the liver (which he is to remove along with the kidneys)[co] 10 —just as it is taken from the ox of the peace-offering sacrifice[cp]—and the priest must offer them up in smoke on the altar of burnt offering. 11 But the hide of the bull, all its flesh along with its head and its legs, its entrails, and its dung— 12 all the rest of the bull[cq]—he must bring outside the camp[cr] to a ceremonially clean place,[cs] to the fatty-ash pile,[ct] and he must burn[cu] it on a wood fire; it must be burned on the fatty-ash pile.

For the Whole Congregation

13 “‘If the whole congregation of Israel strays unintentionally[cv] and the matter is not noticed by[cw] the assembly, and they violate one of the Lord’s commandments, which must not be violated,[cx] so they become guilty, 14 the assembly must present a young bull for a sin offering when the sin they have committed[cy] becomes known. They must bring it before the Meeting Tent, 15 the elders of the congregation must lay their hands on the head of the bull before the Lord, and someone must slaughter[cz] the bull before the Lord. 16 Then the high priest[da] must bring some of the blood of the bull to the Meeting Tent, 17 and that priest must dip his finger in the blood[db] and sprinkle[dc] some of the blood seven times[dd] before the Lord toward the front of the curtain.[de] 18 He must put some of the blood on the horns of the altar[df] which is before the Lord in the Meeting Tent, and all the rest of the blood he must pour out at the base of the altar of burnt offering that is at the entrance of the Meeting Tent.

19 “‘Then the priest[dg] must take all its fat[dh] and offer the fat[di] up in smoke on the altar. 20 He must do with the rest of the bull just as he did with the bull of the sin offering; this is what he must do with it.[dj] So the priest will make atonement[dk] on their behalf and they will be forgiven.[dl] 21 He[dm] must bring the rest of the bull outside the camp[dn] and burn it just as he burned the first bull—it is the sin offering of the assembly.

For the Leader

22 “‘Whenever[do] a leader, by straying unintentionally,[dp] sins and violates one of the commandments of the Lord his God which must not be violated,[dq] and he pleads guilty, 23 or his sin that he committed[dr] is made known to him,[ds] he must bring a flawless male goat as his offering.[dt] 24 He must lay his hand on the head of the male goat and slaughter[du] it in the place where the burnt offering is slaughtered before the Lord—it is a sin offering. 25 Then the priest must take some of the blood of the sin offering with his finger and put it on the horns of the altar of burnt offering, and he must pour out the rest of its blood at the base of the altar of burnt offering. 26 Then the priest[dv] must offer all of its fat up in smoke on the altar like the fat of the peace-offering sacrifice. So the priest will make atonement[dw] on his behalf for[dx] his sin and he will be forgiven.[dy]

For the Common Person

27 “‘If an ordinary individual[dz] sins by straying unintentionally[ea] when he violates one of the Lord’s commandments which must not be violated,[eb] and he pleads guilty, 28 or his sin that he committed[ec] is made known to him,[ed] he must bring a flawless female goat[ee] as his offering for the sin[ef] that he committed. 29 He must lay his hand on the head of the sin offering and slaughter[eg] the sin offering in the place where the burnt offering is slaughtered. 30 Then the priest must take some of its blood with his finger and put it on the horns of the altar of burnt offering, and he must pour out all the rest of its blood at the base of the altar. 31 Then he must remove all of its fat (just as fat was removed from the peace-offering sacrifice) and the priest must offer it up in smoke on the altar for a soothing aroma to the Lord. So the priest will make atonement[eh] on his behalf and he will be forgiven.[ei]

32 “‘But if he brings a sheep as his offering, for a sin offering, he must bring a flawless female. 33 He must lay his hand on the head of the sin offering and slaughter it for a sin offering in the place where the burnt offering is slaughtered. 34 Then the priest must take some of the blood of the sin offering with his finger and put it on the horns of the altar of burnt offering, and he must pour out all the rest of its blood at the base of the altar. 35 Then the one who brought the offering[ej] must remove all its fat (just as the fat of the sheep is removed from the peace-offering sacrifice) and the priest must offer them up in smoke on the altar on top of the other gifts for the Lord. So the priest will make atonement[ek] on his behalf for his sin which he has committed and he will be forgiven.[el]

Additional Sin-Offering Regulations

“‘When a person sins[em] in that he hears a public curse against one who fails to testify[en] and he is a witness (he either saw or knew what had happened[eo]) and he does not make it known,[ep] then he will bear his punishment for iniquity.[eq] Or when there is[er] a person who touches anything ceremonially unclean,[es] whether the carcass of an unclean wild animal, or the carcass of an unclean domesticated animal, or the carcass of an unclean creeping thing, even if he did not realize it,[et] he has become unclean and is guilty;[eu] or when he touches human uncleanness with regard to anything by which he can become unclean,[ev] even if he did not realize it, but he has later come to know it and is guilty; or when a person swears an oath, speaking thoughtlessly[ew] with his lips, whether to do evil or to do good, with regard to anything which the individual might speak thoughtlessly in an oath, even if he did not realize it, but he has later come to know it and is guilty with regard to one of these oaths[ex] when an individual becomes guilty with regard to one of these things[ey] he must confess how he has sinned,[ez] and he must bring his penalty for guilt[fa] to the Lord for his sin that he has committed—a female from the flock, whether a female sheep or a female goat, for a sin offering. So the priest will make atonement[fb] on his behalf for[fc] his sin.

“‘If he cannot afford an animal from the flock,[fd] he must bring his penalty for guilt for his sin that he has committed,[fe] two turtledoves or two young pigeons,[ff] to the Lord, one for a sin offering and one for a burnt offering. He must bring them to the priest and present first the one that is for a sin offering. The priest[fg] must pinch[fh] its head at the nape of its neck, but must not sever the head from the body.[fi] Then he must sprinkle[fj] some of the blood of the sin offering on the wall of the altar, and the remainder of the blood[fk] must be squeezed out at the base of the altar—it is a sin offering. 10 The second bird[fl] he must make a burnt offering according to the standard regulation.[fm] So the priest will make atonement[fn] on behalf of this person for[fo] his sin which he has committed, and he will be forgiven.[fp]

11 “‘If he cannot afford[fq] two turtledoves or two young pigeons,[fr] he must bring as his offering for his sin which he has committed[fs] a tenth of an ephah[ft] of choice wheat flour[fu] for a sin offering. He must not place olive oil on it, and he must not put frankincense on it, because it is a sin offering. 12 He must bring it to the priest, and the priest must scoop out from it a handful as its memorial portion[fv] and offer it up in smoke on the altar on top of the other gifts of the Lord—it is a sin offering. 13 So the priest will make atonement[fw] on his behalf for his sin which he has committed by doing one of these things,[fx] and he will be forgiven.[fy] The remainder of the offering[fz] will belong to the priest like the grain offering.’”[ga]

Guilt-Offering Regulations: Known Trespass

14 Then the Lord spoke to Moses:[gb] 15 “When a person commits a trespass[gc] and sins by straying unintentionally[gd] from the regulations about the Lord’s holy things,[ge] then he must bring his penalty for guilt[gf] to the Lord, a flawless ram from the flock, convertible into silver shekels according to the standard of the sanctuary shekel,[gg] for a guilt offering.[gh] 16 And whatever holy thing he violated[gi] he must restore and must add one-fifth to it and give it to the priest. So the priest will make atonement[gj] on his behalf with the guilt-offering ram and he will be forgiven.[gk]

Unknown trespass

17 “If a person sins and violates any of the Lord’s commandments that must not be violated[gl] (although he did not know it at the time,[gm] but later realizes he is guilty), then he will bear his punishment for iniquity[gn] 18 and must bring a flawless ram from the flock, convertible into silver shekels,[go] for a guilt offering to the priest. So the priest will make atonement[gp] on his behalf for his error that he committed[gq] (although he himself had not known it) and he will be forgiven.[gr] 19 It is a guilt offering; he was surely guilty before the Lord.”

Trespass by Deception and False Oath

(5:20)[gs] Then the Lord spoke to Moses:[gt] “When a person sins and commits a trespass[gu] against the Lord by deceiving his fellow citizen[gv] in regard to something held in trust, or a pledge, or something stolen, or by extorting something from his fellow citizen,[gw] or has found something lost and denies it and swears falsely[gx] concerning any one of the things that someone might do to sin[gy] when it happens that he sins and he is found guilty[gz] then he must return whatever he had stolen, or whatever he had extorted, or the thing that he had held in trust,[ha] or the lost thing that he had found, or anything about which he swears falsely.[hb] He must restore it in full[hc] and add one-fifth to it; he must give it to its owner when he is found guilty.[hd] Then he must bring his guilt offering to the Lord, a flawless ram from the flock, convertible into silver shekels,[he] for a guilt offering to the priest. So the priest will make atonement[hf] on his behalf before the Lord and he will be forgiven[hg] for whatever he has done to become guilty.”[hh]

Sacrificial Instructions for the Priests: The Burnt Offering

(6:1)[hi] Then the Lord spoke to Moses:[hj] “Command Aaron and his sons, ‘This is the law of the burnt offering. The burnt offering is to remain on the hearth[hk] on the altar all night until morning, and the fire of the altar must be kept burning on it.[hl] 10 Then the priest must put on his linen robe and must put linen leggings[hm] over his bare flesh, and he must take up the fatty ashes of the burnt offering that the fire consumed on the altar,[hn] and he must place them[ho] beside the altar. 11 Then he must take off his clothes and put on other clothes, and he must bring the fatty ashes outside the camp to a ceremonially clean[hp] place, 12 but the fire which is on the altar must be kept burning on it.[hq] It must not be extinguished. So the priest must kindle wood on it morning by morning, and he must arrange the burnt offering on it and offer the fat of the peace offering up in smoke on it. 13 A continual fire must be kept burning on the altar. It must not be extinguished.

The Grain Offering of the Common Person

14 “‘This is the law of the grain offering. The sons of Aaron are to present it[hr] before the Lord in front of the altar, 15 and the priest[hs] must take up with his hand some of the choice wheat flour of the grain offering[ht] and some of its olive oil, and all of the frankincense that is on the grain offering, and he must offer its memorial portion[hu] up in smoke on the altar[hv] as a soothing aroma to the Lord.[hw] 16 Aaron and his sons are to eat what is left over from it. It must be eaten unleavened in a holy place; they are to eat it in the courtyard of the Meeting Tent. 17 It must not be baked with yeast.[hx] I have given it as their portion from my gifts. It is most holy,[hy] like the sin offering and the guilt offering. 18 Every male among the sons of Aaron may eat it. It is a perpetual allotted portion[hz] throughout your generations[ia] from the gifts of the Lord. Anyone who touches these gifts[ib] must be holy.’”[ic]

The Grain Offering of the Priests

19 Then the Lord spoke to Moses:[id] 20 “This is the offering of Aaron and his sons which they must present to the Lord on the day when he is anointed: a tenth of an ephah[ie] of choice wheat flour[if] as a continual grain offering, half of it in the morning and half of it in the evening. 21 It must be made with olive oil on a griddle and you must bring it well soaked,[ig] so you must present a grain offering of broken pieces[ih] as a soothing aroma to the Lord. 22 The high priest who succeeds him[ii] from among his sons must do it. It is a perpetual statute; it must be offered up in smoke as a whole offering to the Lord. 23 Every grain offering of a priest must be a whole offering; it must not be eaten.”

The Sin Offering

24 Then the Lord spoke to Moses:[ij] 25 “Tell Aaron and his sons, ‘This is the law of the sin offering. In the place where the burnt offering is slaughtered the sin offering must be slaughtered before the Lord. It is most holy.[ik] 26 The priest who offers it for sin is to eat it. It must be eaten in a holy place, in the courtyard of the Meeting Tent. 27 Anyone who touches its meat must be holy, and whoever spatters some of its blood on a garment[il] must wash[im] whatever he spatters it on in a holy place. 28 Any clay vessel it is boiled in must be broken, and if it was boiled in a bronze vessel, then that vessel[in] must be rubbed out and rinsed in water. 29 Any male among the priests may eat it. It is most holy.[io] 30 But any sin offering from which some of its blood is brought into the Meeting Tent to make atonement in the sanctuary must not be eaten. It must be burned up in the fire.[ip]

The Guilt Offering

“‘This is the law of the guilt offering. It is most holy. In the place where they slaughter the burnt offering they must slaughter the guilt offering, and the officiating priest[iq] must splash[ir] the blood against the altar’s sides. Then the one making the offering[is] must present all its fat: the fatty tail, the fat covering the entrails, the two kidneys and the fat on their sinews, and the protruding lobe on the liver (which he must remove along with the kidneys).[it] Then the priest must offer them up in smoke on the altar[iu] as a gift to the Lord. It is a guilt offering. Any male among the priests may eat it. It must be eaten in a holy place. It is most holy.[iv] The law is the same for the sin offering and the guilt offering;[iw] it belongs to the priest who makes atonement with it.

Priestly Portions of Burnt and Grain Offerings

“‘As for the priest who presents someone’s burnt offering, the hide of that burnt offering which he presented belongs to him. Every grain offering which is baked in the oven or[ix] made in the pan[iy] or on the griddle belongs to the priest who presented it. 10 Every grain offering, whether mixed with olive oil or dry, belongs to all the sons of Aaron, each one alike.[iz]

The Peace Offering

11 “‘This is the law of the peace-offering sacrifice which he[ja] is to present to the Lord. 12 If he presents it on account of thanksgiving,[jb] along with the thank-offering sacrifice he must present unleavened loaves mixed with olive oil, unleavened wafers smeared with olive oil,[jc] and well-soaked,[jd] ring-shaped loaves made of choice wheat flour[je] mixed with olive oil. 13 He must present this grain offering[jf] in addition to ring-shaped loaves of leavened bread which regularly accompany[jg] the sacrifice of his thanksgiving peace offering. 14 He must present one of each kind of grain offering[jh] as a contribution offering[ji] to the Lord; it belongs to the priest who splashes the blood of the peace offering. 15 The meat of his[jj] thanksgiving peace offering must be eaten on the day of his offering; he must not set any of it aside until morning.

16 “‘If his offering is a votive or freewill sacrifice,[jk] it may be eaten on the day he presents his sacrifice, and also the leftovers from it may be eaten on the next day,[jl] 17 but the leftovers from the meat of the sacrifice must be burned up in the fire[jm] on the third day. 18 If some of the meat of his peace-offering sacrifice is ever eaten on the third day it will not be accepted; it will not be accounted to the one who presented it since it is spoiled,[jn] and the person who eats from it will bear his punishment for iniquity.[jo] 19 The meat which touches anything ceremonially unclean[jp] must not be eaten; it must be burned up in the fire. As for ceremonially clean meat,[jq] everyone who is ceremonially clean may eat the meat. 20 The person who eats meat from the peace-offering sacrifice which belongs to the Lord while that person’s uncleanness persists[jr] will be cut off from his people.[js] 21 When a person touches anything unclean (whether human uncleanness, or an unclean animal, or an unclean detestable creature)[jt] and eats some of the meat of the peace-offering sacrifice which belongs to the Lord, that person will be cut off from his people.’”[ju]

Sacrificial Instructions for the Common People: Fat and Blood

22 Then the Lord spoke to Moses:[jv] 23 “Tell the Israelites, ‘You must not eat any fat of an ox, sheep, or goat. 24 Moreover, the fat of an animal that has died of natural causes[jw] and the fat of an animal torn by beasts may be used for any other purpose,[jx] but you must certainly never eat it. 25 If anyone eats fat from the animal from which he presents a gift to the Lord, that person will be cut off from his people.[jy] 26 And you must not eat any blood of the birds or of the domesticated land animals in any of the places where you live.[jz] 27 Any person who eats any blood—that person will be cut off from his people.’”[ka]

Priestly Portions of Peace Offerings

28 Then the Lord spoke to Moses:[kb] 29 “Tell the Israelites, ‘The one who presents his peace-offering sacrifice to the Lord must bring part of his offering to the Lord as his sacrifice. 30 With his own hands he must bring the Lord’s gifts. He must bring the fat with the breast[kc] to wave the breast as a wave offering before the Lord,[kd] 31 and the priest must offer the fat up in smoke on the altar, but the breast will belong to Aaron and his sons. 32 The right thigh you must give as a contribution offering[ke] to the priest from your peace-offering sacrifice. 33 The one from Aaron’s sons who presents the blood of the peace offering and fat will have the right thigh as his share, 34 for the breast of the wave offering and the thigh of the contribution offering I have taken from the Israelites out of their peace-offering sacrifices and have given them to Aaron the priest and to his sons from the people of Israel as a perpetual allotted portion.’”[kf]

35 This is the allotment of Aaron and the allotment of his sons from the Lord’s gifts on the day Moses[kg] presented them to serve as priests[kh] to the Lord. 36 This is what the Lord commanded to give to them from the Israelites on the day Moses[ki] anointed them[kj]—a perpetual allotted portion throughout their generations.[kk]

Summary of Sacrificial Regulations in Leviticus 6:8-7:36

37 This is the law[kl] for the burnt offering, the grain offering,[km] the sin offering, the guilt offering, the ordination offering,[kn] and the peace-offering sacrifice, 38 which the Lord commanded Moses on Mount Sinai on the day he commanded the Israelites to present their offerings to the Lord in the desert of Sinai.

Footnotes:

  1. Leviticus 1:1 tn Heb “And he (the Lord) called (וַיִּקְרָא, vayyiqraʾ) to Moses and the Lord spoke (וַיְדַבֵּר, vayedabber) to him from the tent of meeting.” The MT assumes “Lord” in the first clause but places it in the second clause (after “spoke”). This is somewhat awkward, especially in terms of English style; most English versions reverse this and place “Lord” in the first clause (right after “called”). The Syriac version does the same.sn The best explanation for the MT of Lev 1:1 arises from its function as a transition from Exod 40 to Lev 1. The first clause, “And he (the Lord) called to Moses,” links v. 1 back to Exod 40:35, “But Moses was not able to enter into the tent of meeting because the cloud had settled on it and the glory of the Lord had filled the tabernacle” (cf. J. Milgrom, Leviticus [AB], 1:134). Exod 40:36-38 is a parenthetical explanation of the ongoing function of the cloud in leading the people through the wilderness. Since Moses could not enter the tent of meeting, the Lord “called” to him “from” the tent of meeting.
  2. Leviticus 1:1 sn The second clause of v. 1, “and the Lord spoke to him from the tent of meeting, saying,” introduces the following discourse. This is a standard introductory formula (see, e.g., Exod 20:1; 25:1; 31:1; etc.). The combination of the first and second clauses is, therefore, “bulky” because of the way they happen to be juxtaposed in this transitional verse (J. E. Hartley, Leviticus [WBC], 8). The first clause of v. 1 connects the book back to the end of the Book of Exodus while the second looks forward the ritual legislation that follows in Lev 1:2ff. There are two “Tents of Meeting”: the one that stood outside the camp (see, e.g., Exod 33:7) and the one that stood in the midst of the camp (Exod 40:2; Num 2:2ff) and served as the Lord’s residence until the construction of the temple in the days of Solomon (Exod 27:21; 29:4; 1 Kgs 8:4; 2 Chr 5:5, etc.; cf. 2 Sam 7:6). Exod 40:35 uses both “tabernacle” and “tent of meeting” to refer to the same tent: “Moses could not enter the tent of meeting because the cloud had settled on it, and the glory of the Lord filled the tabernacle.” It is clear that “tent of meeting” in Lev 1:1 refers to the “tabernacle.” The latter term refers to the tent as a “residence,” while the former refers to it as a divinely appointed place of “meeting” between God and man (see R. E. Averbeck, NIDOTTE 2:873-77 and 2:1130-34). This corresponds to the change in terms in Exod 40:35, where “tent of meeting” is used when referring to Moses’ inability to enter the tent, but “tabernacle” when referring to the Lord taking up residence there in the form of the glory cloud. The quotation introduced here extends from Lev 1:2 through 3:17, and encompasses the burnt, grain, and peace offering regulations. Compare the notes on Lev 4:1; 5:14; and 6:1 [5:20 HT] below.
  3. Leviticus 1:2 tn “When” here translates the MT’s כִּי (ki, “if, when”), which regularly introduces main clauses in legislative contexts (see, e.g., Lev 2:1, 4; 4:2, etc.) in contrast to אִם (ʾim, “if”), which usually introduces subordinate sections (see, e.g., Lev 1:3, 10, 14; 2:5, 7, 14; 4:3, 13, etc.; cf. כִּי in Exod 21:2 and 7 as opposed to אִם in vv. 3, 4, 5, 8, 9, 10, and 11).sn Lev 1:1-2 serves as a heading for Lev 1-3 (i.e., the basic regulations regarding the presentation of the burnt, grain, and peace offerings) and, at the same time, leads directly into the section on “burnt offerings” in Lev 1:3. In turn, Lev 1:3-17 divides into three subsections, all introduced by אִם “if” (Lev 1:3-9, 10-13, and 14-17, respectively). Similar patterns are discernible throughout Lev 1:2-6:7 [5:26 HT].
  4. Leviticus 1:2 tn Heb “a man, human being” (אָדָם, ʾadam), which in this case refers to any person among “mankind,” male or female, since women could also bring such offerings (see, e.g., Lev 12:6-8; 15:29-30; cf. HALOT 14 s.v. I אָדָם); cf. NIV “any of you.”
  5. Leviticus 1:2 tn The verb “presents” is cognate to the noun “offering” in v. 2 and throughout the book of Leviticus (both from the root קרב [qrb]). One could translate the verb “offers,” but this becomes awkward and, in fact, inaccurate in some passages. For example, in Lev 9:9 this verb is used for the presenting or giving of the blood to Aaron so that he could offer it to the Lord. The blood is certainly not being “offered” as an offering to Aaron there.
  6. Leviticus 1:2 tn The whole clause reads more literally, “A human being (אָדָם, ʾadam), if he brings from among you an offering to the Lord.”
  7. Leviticus 1:2 tn The shift to the second person plural verb here corresponds to the previous second person plural pronoun “among you.” It is distinct from the regular pattern of third person singular verbs throughout the rest of Lev 1-3. This too labels Lev 1:1-2 as an introduction to all of Lev 1-3, not just the burnt offering regulations in Lev 1 (J. Milgrom, Leviticus [AB], 1:146; cf. note 3 above).
  8. Leviticus 1:2 tn Heb “from the domesticated animal, from the herd, and from the flock.” It is clear from the subsequent division between animals from the “herd” (בָּקָר, baqar, in Lev 1:3-9) and the “flock” (צֹאן, tsoʾn; see Lev 1:10-13) that the term for “domesticated animal” (בְּהֵמָה, behemah) is a general term meant to introduce the category of pastoral quadrupeds. The stronger disjunctive accent over בְּהֵמָה in the MT as well as the lack of a vav (ו) between it and בָּקָר also suggest בְּהֵמָה is an overall category that includes both “herd” and “flock” quadrupeds. sn The bird category (Lev 1:14-17) is not included in this introduction because bird offerings were, by and large, concessions to the poor (cf., e.g., Lev 5:7-10; 12:8; 14:21-32) and, therefore, not considered to be one of the primary categories of animal offerings.
  9. Leviticus 1:3 sn The burnt offering (עֹלָה, ʾolah) was basically “a gift of a soothing aroma to the Lord” (vv. 9, 13, 17). It could serve as a votive or freewill offering (e.g., Lev 22:18-20), an accompaniment of prayer and supplication (e.g., 1 Sam 7:9-10), part of the regular daily, weekly, monthly, and festival cultic pattern (e.g., Num 28-29), or to make atonement either alone (e.g., Lev 1:4; 16:24) or in combination with the grain offering (e.g., Lev 14:20) or sin offering (e.g., Lev 5:7; 9:7). See R. E. Averbeck, NIDOTTE 4:996-1022.
  10. Leviticus 1:3 tn Heb “door” (so KJV, ASV); NASB “doorway” (likewise throughout the book of Leviticus). The translation “door” or “doorway” may suggest a framed door in a casing to the modern reader, but here the term refers to the entrance to a tent.
  11. Leviticus 1:3 tn The NIV correctly has “it” in the text, referring to the acceptance of the animal (cf., e.g., RSV, NEB, NLT), but “he” in the margin, referring to the acceptance of the offerer (cf. ASV, NASB, JB). The reference to a “flawless male” in the first half of this verse suggests that the issue here is the acceptability of the animal to make atonement on behalf of the offerer (Lev 1:4; cf. NRSV “for acceptance in your behalf”).
  12. Leviticus 1:4 tn “To make atonement” is the standard translation of the Hebrew term כִּפֶּר, (kipper); cf. however TEV “as a sacrifice to take away his sins” (CEV similar). The English word derives from a combination of “at” plus Middle English “one[ment],” referring primarily to reconciliation or reparation that is made in order to accomplish reconciliation. The primary meaning of the Hebrew verb, however, is “to wipe [something off (or on)]” (see esp. the goal of the sin offering, Lev 4, “to purge” the tabernacle from impurities), but in some cases it refers metaphorically to “wiping away” anything that might stand in the way of good relations by bringing a gift (see, e.g., Gen 32:20 [21 HT], “to appease; to pacify” as an illustration of this). The translation “make atonement” has been retained here because, ultimately, the goal of either purging or appeasing was to maintain a proper relationship between the Lord (who dwelt in the tabernacle) and Israelites in whose midst the tabernacle was pitched (see R. E. Averbeck, NIDOTTE 2:689-710 for a full discussion of the Hebrew word meaning “to make atonement” and its theological significance).
  13. Leviticus 1:5 tn Heb “Then he”; the referent (the offerer) has been specified in the translation for clarity. The LXX has “they” rather than “he,” suggesting that the priests, not the offerer, were to slaughter the bull (cf. the notes on vv. 6a and 9a).
  14. Leviticus 1:5 tn Heb “the son of the herd”; cf. KJV “bullock”; NASB, NIV “young bull.”
  15. Leviticus 1:5 tn “Splash” (cf. NAB) or “dash” (cf. NRSV) is better than “sprinkle,” which is the common English translation of this verb (זָרַק, zaraq; see, e.g., KJV, NASB, NIV, NLT). “Sprinkle” is not strong enough (contrast נָזָה [nazah], which does indeed mean “to sprinkle” or “to splatter”; cf. Lev 4:6).
  16. Leviticus 1:6 tn Heb “Then he”; the referent (the offerer) has been specified in the translation for clarity. The LXX and Smr have “they” rather than “he” in both halves of this verse, suggesting that the priests, not the offerer, were to skin and cut the carcass of the bull into pieces (cf. the notes on vv. 5a and 9a).
  17. Leviticus 1:7 tc A few medieval Hebrew mss, Smr, LXX, Syriac, and Tg. Onq. have plural “priests” here (cf. 1:5, 8) rather than the MT singular “priest” (cf. NAB). The singular “priest” would mean (1) Aaron, the (high) priest, or (2) the officiating priest, as in Lev 1:9 (cf. 6:10 [3 HT], etc.). “The sons of Aaron” may be a textual conflation with Lev 1:5, 8 (cf. the remarks in J. E. Hartley, Leviticus [WBC], 13).
  18. Leviticus 1:8 tc A few Hebrew mss, Smr, LXX, Syriac, and Tg. Onq. have the conjunction “and” before “the head,” which would suggest the rendering “and the head and the suet” rather than the rendering of the MT here, “with the head and the suet.”sn “Suet” is the specific term used for the hard, fatty tissues found around the kidneys of sheep and cattle. A number of modern English versions have simplified this to “fat” (e.g., NIV, NCV, TEV, CEV, NLT).
  19. Leviticus 1:8 tn Heb “on the wood, which is on the fire, which is on the altar.” Cf. NIV “on the burning wood”; NLT “on the wood fire.”
  20. Leviticus 1:9 tn Heb “Finally, he”; the referent (the offerer) has been specified in the translation for clarity. Once again, the MT assigns the preparation of the offering (here the entrails and legs) to the offerer because it did not bring him into direct contact with the altar, but reserves the actual placing of the sacrifice on the altar for the officiating priest (cf. the notes on vv. 5a and 6a).
  21. Leviticus 1:9 tn Heb “toward the altar,” but the so-called locative ה (he) attached to the word for “altar” can indicate the place where something is or happens (GKC 250 §90.d and GKC 373-74 §118.g; cf. also J. Milgrom, Leviticus [AB], 1:161). This is a standard way of expressing “on/at the altar” with the verb “to offer up in smoke” (Hiphil of קָטַר [qatar]; cf. also Exod 29:13, 18, 25; Lev 1:9, 13, 15, 17; 2:2, etc.).
  22. Leviticus 1:9 tc A few Hebrew mss and possibly the Leningrad B19a ms itself (the basis of the BHS Hebrew text of the MT), under an apparent erasure, plus Smr, LXX, Syriac, and Tg. Ps.-J. suggest that Hebrew הוּא (huʾ, translated as “it is”) should be added here as in vv. 13 and 17. Whether or not the text should be changed, the meaning is the same as in vv. 13 and 17, so it has been included in the translation here.
  23. Leviticus 1:9 sn The standard English translation of “gift” (אִשֶּׁה, ʾisheh) is “an offering [made] by fire” (cf. KJV, ASV). It is based on a supposed etymological relationship to the Hebrew word for “fire” (אֵשׁ, ʾesh) and is still maintained in many versions (e.g., NIV, RSV, NRSV, NLT; B. A. Levine, Leviticus [JPSTC], 7-8). For various reasons, including the fact that some offerings referred to by this term are not burned on the altar (see, e.g., Lev 24:9), it is probably better to understand the term to mean “gift” (J. E. Hartley, Leviticus [WBC], 22) or “food gift” (“food offering” in NEB and TEV; J. Milgrom, Leviticus [AB], 1:161-62). See R. E. Averbeck, NIDOTTE 1:540-49 for a complete discussion.
  24. Leviticus 1:10 tn Heb “And if from the flock is his offering, from the sheep or from the goats, for a burnt offering.” Here “flock” specifies the broad category, with “sheep or goats” giving specific examples.
  25. Leviticus 1:12 tn Heb “Then he”; the referent (the offerer) has been specified in the translation for clarity (so also in v. 13).
  26. Leviticus 1:14 tn Heb “from the [category] ‘bird.’”
  27. Leviticus 1:14 tn Heb “from the sons of the pigeon,” referring either to “young pigeons” (cf. KJV, NASB, NIV, NLT) or “various species of pigeon” (contrast J. Milgrom, Leviticus [AB], 1:168, with J. E. Hartley, Leviticus [WBC], 14).
  28. Leviticus 1:15 tn The action here seems to involve both a twisting action, breaking the neck of the bird and severing its vertebrae, as well as pinching or nipping the skin to sever the head from the main body. Cf. NASB, NRSV “wring off its head”; NAB “snap its head loose”; NLT “twist off its head.”
  29. Leviticus 1:15 tn Many English versions have “it” here, referring to the head of the bird, which the priest immediately tossed on the altar fire. However, “it” could be misunderstood to refer to the bird’s body, so “head” is repeated in the present translation for clarity. As the following lines show, certain things needed to be done to the body of the bird before it could be placed on the altar.
  30. Leviticus 1:16 tn Heb “Then he”; the referent (apparently still the priest) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
  31. Leviticus 1:16 tn This translation (“remove its entrails by [cutting off] its tail feathers”) is based on the discussion in J. Milgrom, Leviticus (AB), 1:169-71, although he translates, “remove its crissum by its feathers.” Others possibilities include “its crop with its contents” (Tg. Onq., cf. NIV, NRSV; J. E. Hartley, Leviticus [WBC], 23) or “its crop with its feathers” (LXX, NASB, RSV; “crop” refers to the enlarged part of a bird’s gullet that serves a pouch for the preliminary maceration of food).
  32. Leviticus 1:16 tn The pronoun “them” here is feminine singular in Hebrew and refers collectively to the entrails and tail wing which have been removed.
  33. Leviticus 1:17 tn Heb “he shall not divide it.” Several Hebrew mss, Smr, LXX, and Syriac have a vav on the negative, yielding the translation, “but he shall not divide it into two parts.” Cf. NIV “not severing it completely” (NRSV similar).
  34. Leviticus 2:1 sn The “grain offering” (מִנְחָה [minkhah]; here קָרְבַּן מִנְחָה, [qorban minkhah], “an offering of a grain offering”) generally accompanied a burnt or peace offering to supplement the meat with bread (the libation provided the drink; cf. Num 15:1-10), thus completing the food “gift” to the Lord. It made atonement (see the note on Lev 1:4) along with the burnt offering (e.g., Lev 14:20) or alone as a sin offering for the poor (Lev 5:11-13).
  35. Leviticus 2:1 tn The Hebrew term for “choice wheat flour” (סֹלֶת, solet) is often translated “fine flour” (cf. KJV, NAB, NIV, NCV), but it refers specifically to wheat as opposed to barley (B. A. Levine, Leviticus [JPSTC], 10). Moreover, the translation “flour” might be problematic, since the Hebrew term may designate the “grits” rather than the more finely ground “flour” (see J. Milgrom, Leviticus [AB], 1:179 as opposed to Levine, 10, and J. E. Hartley, Leviticus [WBC], 30).
  36. Leviticus 2:1 sn This is not just any “incense” (קְטֹרֶת, qetoret; R. E. Averbeck, NIDOTTE 3:913-16), but specifically “frankincense” (לְבֹנָה, levonah; R. E. Averbeck, NIDOTTE 2:756-57).
  37. Leviticus 2:2 tn Heb “and he”; the referent has been specified in the translation for clarity. The syntax is strange here and might suggest that it was the offerer who scooped out a handful of the grain offering for the memorial portion (G. J. Wenham, Leviticus [NICOT], 66), but based on v. 9 below it should be understood that it was the priest who performed this act (see, e.g., NRSV “After taking from it a handful of the choice flour and oil…the priest shall…”; see also J. Milgrom, Leviticus [AB], 1:177, 181 and J. E. Hartley, Leviticus [WBC], 30).
  38. Leviticus 2:2 sn The “memorial portion” (אַזְכָּרָה, ʾazkarah) was the part of the grain offering that was burnt on the altar (see the previous clause), as opposed to the remainder, which was normally consumed by the priests (v. 3; see the full regulations in Lev 6:14-23 [7-16]). It was probably intended to call to mind (i.e., memorialize) before the Lord the reason for the presentation of the particular offering (see the remarks in R. E. Averbeck, NIDOTTE 1:335-39).
  39. Leviticus 2:2 tn The words “it is” have been supplied. See the notes on Lev 1:9 and 2:3. There is no text critical problem here, but the syntax suggests the same translation.
  40. Leviticus 2:3 tn Heb “…is to Aaron and to his sons.” The preposition “to” (ל, lamed) indicates ownership. Cf. NAB, NASB, NIV and other English versions.
  41. Leviticus 2:3 tn The words “it is” (הוּא, huʾ) are not in the MT, but are supplied for the sake of translation into English. The Syriac also for translational reasons adds it between “most holy” and “from the gifts” (cf. 1:13, 17).
  42. Leviticus 2:3 tn Heb “holy of holies”; KJV, NASB “a thing most holy.”
  43. Leviticus 2:4 tn The insertion of the words “it must be made of” is justified by the context and the expressed words “it shall be made of” in vv. 7 and 8 below.
  44. Leviticus 2:4 sn These “loaves” were either “ring-shaped” (HALOT 317 s.v. חַלָּה) or “perforated” (BDB 319 s.v. חַלָּה; cf. J. Milgrom, Leviticus [AB], 1:184).
  45. Leviticus 2:4 tn Heb “and.” Here the conjunction vav (ו) has an alternative sense (“or”).
  46. Leviticus 2:4 tn The Hebrew word מְשֻׁחִים (meshukhim) translated here as “smeared” is often translated “anointed” in other contexts. Cf. TEV “brushed with olive oil” (CEV similar).
  47. Leviticus 2:6 tn There is no vav (ו, “and”) in the MT at the beginning of v. 6 and the verb is pointed as an infinite absolute. The present translation has rendered it as an imperative (see GKC 346 §113.bb) and, therefore, the same for the following vav consecutive perfect verb (cf. NIV “Crumble it and pour oil on it”; cf. also NRSV, NEB, NLT, and J. Milgrom, Leviticus [AB], 1:185, but note the objections to this rendering in J. E. Hartley, Leviticus [WBC], 26). The LXX seems to suggest adding a vav (“and”) and pointing the verb as a consecutive perfect, which yields “and you shall break it in pieces” (cf. the BHS textual note; Hartley, 26, prefers the LXX rendering).
  48. Leviticus 2:7 tn Heb “a grain offering of a pan”; cf. KJV “fryingpan”; NAB “pot”; CEV “pan with a lid on it.”
  49. Leviticus 2:7 sn Lev 7:9 makes it clear that one cooked “on” a griddle but “in” a pan. This suggests that the oil in the pan served for deep fat frying, hence the translation “deep fried in olive oil” (see, e.g., J. Milgrom, Leviticus [AB], 1:185); cf. also NAB.
  50. Leviticus 2:8 tc There are several person, gender, and voice verb problems in this verse. First, the MT has “And you shall bring the grain offering,” but the LXX and Qumran have “he” rather than “you” (J. Milgrom, Leviticus [AB], 1:185). Second, the MT has “which shall be made” (i.e., the third person masculine Niphal passive verb which, in fact, does not agree with its feminine subject, מִנְחָה, minkhah, “grain offering”), while the LXX has “which he shall make” (third person Qal), thus agreeing with the LXX third person verb at the beginning of the verse (see above). Third, the MT has a third person vav consecutive verb “and he shall present it to the priest,” which agrees with the LXX but is not internally consistent with the second person verb at the beginning of the verse in the MT. The BHS editors conjecture that the latter might be repointed to an imperative verb yielding “present it to the priest.” This would require no change of consonants and corresponds to the person of the first verb in the MT. This solution has been tentatively accepted here (cf. also J. E. Hartley, Leviticus [WBC], 26-27), even though it neither resolves the gender problem of the second verb nor fits the general grammatical pattern of the chapter in the MT.
  51. Leviticus 2:9 tn The Hebrew verb הֵרִים (herim, “to take up”; cf. NAB “lift”) is commonly used for setting aside portions of an offering (see, e.g., Lev 4:8-10 and R. E. Averbeck, NIDOTTE 4:335-36). A number of English versions employ the more normal English idiom “take out” here (e.g., NIV, NCV); cf. NRSV “remove.”
  52. Leviticus 2:9 tn The words “it is” (הוּא, huʾ) both here and in vv. 10 and 16 are not in the MT, but are assumed (cf. vv. 2b and 3b and the notes there).
  53. Leviticus 2:10 tn See the note on “it is” in v. 9b.
  54. Leviticus 2:11 tn Heb “Every grain offering which you offer to the Lord must not be made leavened.” The noun “leaven” is traditional in English versions (cf. KJV, ASV, NASB, NRSV), but “yeast” is more commonly used today.
  55. Leviticus 2:11 tc A few Hebrew mss, Smr, LXX, and Tg. Ps.-J. have the verb “present” rather than “offer up in smoke,” but the MT is clearly correct. One could indeed present leavened and honey sweetened offerings as firstfruit offerings, which were not burned on the altar (see v. 12 and the note there), but they could not be offered up in fire on the altar. Cf. the TEV’s ambiguous “you must never use yeast or honey in food offered to the Lord.”tn Heb “for all leaven and all honey you must not offer up in smoke from it a gift to the Lord.”
  56. Leviticus 2:12 sn The “firstfruit” referred to here was given to the priests as a prebend for their service to the Lord, not offered on the altar (Num 18:12).
  57. Leviticus 2:13 tn Heb “from upon your grain offering.”
  58. Leviticus 2:14 tn The translation of this whole section of the clause is difficult. Theoretically, it could describe one, two, or three different ways of preparing first ripe grain offerings (J. E. Hartley, Leviticus [WBC], 27). The translation here takes it as a description of only one kind of prepared grain. This is suggested by the fact that v. 16 uses only one term “crushed bits” (גֶּרֶשׂ, geres) to refer back to the grain as it is prepared in v. 14 (a more technical translation is “groats”; see J. Milgrom, Leviticus [AB], 1:178, 194). Cf. NAB “fresh grits of new ears of grain”; NRSV “coarse new grain from fresh ears.”
  59. Leviticus 2:16 tn See the note on “it is” in 2:9b.
  60. Leviticus 3:1 sn The peace-offering sacrifice primarily enacted and practiced communion between God and man (and between the people of God). This was illustrated by the fact that the fat parts of the animal were consumed on the altar of the Lord but the meat was consumed by the worshipers in a meal before God. This is the only kind of offering in which common worshipers partook of the meat of the animal. When there was a series of offerings that included a peace offering (see, e.g., Lev 9:8-21, sin offerings, burnt offerings, and afterward the peace offerings in vv. 18-21), the peace offering was always offered last because it expressed the fact that all was well between God and his worshiper(s). There were various kinds of peace offerings, depending on the worship intended on the specific occasion. The “thank offering” expressed thanksgiving (e.g., Lev 7:11-15; 22:29-30), the “votive offering” fulfilled a vow (e.g., Lev 7:16-18; 22:21-25), and the “freewill offering” was offered as an expression of devotion and praise to God (e.g., Lev 7:16-18; 22:21-25). The so-called “ordination offering” was also a kind of peace offering that was used to consecrate the priests at their ordination (e.g., Exod 29:19-34; Lev 7:37; 8:22-32). See R. E. Averbeck, NIDOTTE 1:1066-73 and 4:135-43.
  61. Leviticus 3:1 tn Heb “if a male if a female, perfect he shall present it before the Lord.” The “or” in the present translation (and most other English versions) is not present in the Hebrew text here, but see v. 6 below.
  62. Leviticus 3:2 tn See the remarks on Lev 1:3-5 above for some of the details of translation here.
  63. Leviticus 3:3 tn Heb “Then he”; the referent (the person presenting the offering) has been specified in the translation for clarity (cf. the note on Lev 1:5).
  64. Leviticus 3:3 tn Heb “and all the fat on the entrails.” The fat layer that covers the entrails as a whole (i.e., “that covers the entrails”) is different from the fat that surrounds and adheres to the various organs (“on the entrails,” i.e., surrounding them; J. Milgrom, Leviticus [AB], 1:205-7).
  65. Leviticus 3:4 tn Heb “and the protruding lobe on the liver on the kidneys he shall remove it.” Cf. NRSV “the appendage of the liver”; NIV “the covering of the liver” (KJV “the caul above the liver”).
  66. Leviticus 3:5 tn Or “on the fire—[it is] a gift of a soothing aroma to the Lord” (see Lev 1:13b, 17b, and the note on 1:9b).
  67. Leviticus 3:6 tn Heb “a male or female without defect he shall present it”; cf. NLT “must have no physical defects.”
  68. Leviticus 3:8 tn See the note on this term at 1:5.
  69. Leviticus 3:9 sn See the note on this phrase in 3:3.
  70. Leviticus 3:10 tn Heb “and the protruding lobe on the liver on the kidneys he shall remove it.”
  71. Leviticus 3:11 tn Heb “food, a gift to the Lord.”
  72. Leviticus 3:14 sn See the note on this phrase in 3:3.
  73. Leviticus 3:15 tn Heb “and the protruding lobe on the liver on the kidneys he shall remove it.”
  74. Leviticus 3:17 tn The words “This is” are not in the Hebrew text, but are supplied due to requirements of English style.
  75. Leviticus 3:17 tn Heb “for your generations”; NAB “for your descendants”; NLT “for you and all your descendants.”
  76. Leviticus 3:17 tn Heb “all fat and all blood you must not eat.”
  77. Leviticus 4:1 sn The quotation introduced here extends from Lev 4:2 through 5:13, and encompasses all the sin offering regulations. Compare the notes on Lev 1:1 above, and 5:14 and 6:1 [5:20 HT] below.
  78. Leviticus 4:2 tn Heb “And a person, when he sins in straying.” The English translation of “by straying” (בִּשְׁגָגָה [bishgagah] literally, “in going astray; in making an error”) varies greatly, but almost all suggest that this term refers to sins that were committed by mistake or done not knowing that the particular act was sinful (J. Milgrom, Leviticus [AB], 1:228-29). See, e.g., LXX “involuntarily”; Tg. Onq. “by neglect”; KJV “through ignorance”; ASV, RSV, NJPS “unwittingly”; NASB, NIV, NRSV, NLT “unintentionally”; NAB, NEB “inadvertently”; NCV “by accident.” However, we know from Num 15:27-31 that committing a sin “by straying” is the opposite of committing a sin “defiantly” (i.e., בְּיַד רָמָה [beyad ramah] “with a raised hand,” v. 30). In the latter case the person, as it were, raises his fist in presumptuous defiance against the Lord. Thus, he “blasphemes” the Lord and has “despised” his word, for which he should be “cut off from among his people” (Num 15:30-31). One could not bring an offering for such a sin. The expression here in Lev 4:2 combines “by straying” with the preposition “from” which fits naturally with “straying” (i.e., “straying from” the Lord’s commandments). For sins committed “by straying” from the commandments (Lev 4 throughout) or other types of transgressions (Lev 5:1-6) there was indeed forgiveness available through the sin offering. See R. E. Averbeck, NIDOTTE 2:94-95.
  79. Leviticus 4:2 tn This is an emphatic use of the preposition מִן (min; see R. J. Williams, Hebrew Syntax, 56-57, §325).
  80. Leviticus 4:2 tn The “when” clause (כִּי, ki) breaks off here before its resolution, thus creating an open-ended introduction to the following subsections, which are introduced by “if” (אִם [ʾim] vv. 3, 13, 27, 32). Also, the last part of the verse reads literally, “which must not be done and does from one from them.”
  81. Leviticus 4:3 tn Heb “the anointed priest” (so ASV, NAB, NASB, NIV, NRSV). This refers to the high priest (cf. TEV, CEV, NLT).
  82. Leviticus 4:3 tn Heb “to the guilt of the people”; NRSV “thus bringing guilt on the people.”
  83. Leviticus 4:3 tn Heb “and he shall offer on his sin which he sinned, a bull, a son of the herd, flawless.”
  84. Leviticus 4:3 sn The word for “sin offering” (sometimes translated “purification offering”) is the same as the word for “sin” earlier in the verse. One can tell which rendering is intended only by the context. The primary purpose of the “sin offering” (חַטָּאת, khattaʾt) was to “purge” (כִּפֶּר, kipper, “to make atonement,” see 4:20, 26, 31, 35, and the notes on Lev 1:4 and esp. Lev 16:20, 33) the sanctuary or its furniture in order to cleanse it from any impurities and/or (re)consecrate it for holy purposes (see, e.g., Lev 8:15; 16:19). By making this atonement the impurities of the person or community were cleansed and the people became clean. See R. E. Averbeck, NIDOTTE 2:93-103.
  85. Leviticus 4:5 tn Heb “from the blood of the bull” (and similarly throughout this chapter).
  86. Leviticus 4:6 tn The Hebrew verb וְהִזָּה (vehizzah, Hiphil of נָזָה, nazah) does indeed mean “sprinkle” or “splatter.” Contrast the different Hebrew verb meaning “splash” in Lev 1:5 (זָרָק, zaraq).
  87. Leviticus 4:6 tn Heb “of the blood.” The relative pronoun (“it”) has been used in the translation here for stylistic reasons.
  88. Leviticus 4:6 tn The particle here translated “toward” usually serves as a direct object indicator or a preposition meaning “with.” With the verb of motion it probably means “toward,” “in the direction of” (J. Milgrom, Leviticus [AB], 1:234; J. E. Hartley, Leviticus [WBC], 60); cf. NAB, CEV.
  89. Leviticus 4:6 tn The Hebrew term פָּרֹכֶת (parokhet) is usually translated “veil” (e.g., ASV, NAB, NASB) or “curtain” (e.g., NIV, NRSV). It seems to have stretched not only in front of but also over the top of the ark of the covenant which stood behind and under it inside the most holy place and so could be understood as a veil-canopy (see R. E. Averbeck, NIDOTTE 3:687-89).
  90. Leviticus 4:8 tn Heb “all the fat of the bull of the sin offering he shall take up from it.”
  91. Leviticus 4:8 tc The MT has here the preposition עַל (ʿal, “on, upon” [i.e., “which covers on the entrails,” as awkward in Hebrew as it is in English]), but Smr, LXX, Syriac, and Targums read אֶת (ʾet), which is what would be expected (i.e., “which covers the entrails”; cf. Lev 3:3, 9, 14). It may have been mistakenly inserted here under the influence of “on (עַל) the entrails” at the end of the verse.
  92. Leviticus 4:8 tn Heb “and all the fat on the entrails.” The fat layer that covers the entrails as a whole (i.e., “that covers the entrails”) is different from the fat that surrounds and adheres to the various organs (“on the entrails,” i.e., surrounding them; J. Milgrom, Leviticus [AB], 1:205-7).
  93. Leviticus 4:9 tn Heb “and the protruding lobe on the liver on the kidneys he shall remove it.”
  94. Leviticus 4:10 tn Heb “taken up from”; KJV, ASV “taken off from”; NAB, NASB, NIV, NRSV “removed.” See the notes on Lev 3:3-4 above (cf. also 3:9-10, 14-15).
  95. Leviticus 4:12 tn All of v. 11 is a so-called casus pendens (also known as an extraposition or a nominative absolute), which means that it anticipates the next verse, being the full description of “all (the rest of) the bull” (lit. “all the bull”) at the beginning of v. 12 (actually after the first verb of the verse; see the next note below).
  96. Leviticus 4:12 tn Heb “And he (the offerer) shall bring out all the bull to from outside to the camp to a clean place.”
  97. Leviticus 4:12 tn Heb “a clean place,” but referring to a place that is ceremonially clean. This has been specified in the translation for clarity.
  98. Leviticus 4:12 tn Heb “the pouring out [place] of fatty-ash.”
  99. Leviticus 4:12 tn Heb “burn with fire.” This expression is somewhat redundant in English, so the translation collocates “fire” with “wood,” thus “a wood fire.”
  100. Leviticus 4:13 tn Heb “strays”; KJV “sin through ignorance.” The verb “strays” here is the verbal form of the noun in the expression “by straying” (see the note on Lev 4:2 above).
  101. Leviticus 4:13 tn Heb “is concealed from the eyes of”; NASB, NRSV, NLT “escapes the notice of.”
  102. Leviticus 4:13 tn Heb “and they do one from all the commandments of the Lord which must not be done” (cf. v. 2).
  103. Leviticus 4:14 tn Heb “and the sin which they committed on it becomes known”; KJV “which they have sinned against it.” The Hebrew עָלֶיהָ (ʿaleha, “on it”) probably refers back to “one of the commandments” in v. 13 (J. Milgrom, Leviticus [AB], 1:243).
  104. Leviticus 4:15 tn Heb “and he shall slaughter.” The singular verb seems to refer to an individual who represents the whole congregation, perhaps one of the elders referred to at the beginning of the verse, or the officiating priest (cf. v. 21). The LXX and Syriac make the verb plural, referring to “the elders of the congregation.”
  105. Leviticus 4:16 tn Heb “the anointed priest” (so ASV, NAB, NASB, NIV, NRSV). This refers to the high priest (cf. TEV).
  106. Leviticus 4:17 tn The words “in the blood” are not repeated in the Hebrew text at this point, but must be supplied in the English translation for clarity.
  107. Leviticus 4:17 tn The Hebrew verb וְהִזָּה (vehizzah, Hiphil of נָזָה, nazah) does indeed mean “sprinkle” or “splatter.” Contrast the different Hebrew verb translated “splash” in Lev 1:5 (זָרָק, zaraq).
  108. Leviticus 4:17 tc The MT reads literally, “and the priest shall dip his finger from the blood and sprinkle seven times.” This is awkward. Compare v. 6, which has literally, “and the priest shall dip his finger in the blood and sprinkle from the blood seven times.” The MT appears to be a case of scribal haplography (i.e., assuming v. 6 to be the correct form, in v. 17 the scribe skipped from “his finger” to “from the blood,” thus missing “in the blood”) and metathesis (i.e., this also resulted in a text where “from the blood” stands before “sprinkle” rather than after it; J. E. Hartley, Leviticus [WBC], 47).
  109. Leviticus 4:17 tn See the note on v. 6 above.
  110. Leviticus 4:18 sn See v. 7, where this altar is identified as the altar of fragrant incense.
  111. Leviticus 4:19 tn Heb “Then he”; the referent has been specified in the translation for clarity. Based on the parallel statement in 4:10 and 4:31, it is the priest who performs this action rather than the person who brought the offering.
  112. Leviticus 4:19 tn Heb “take up all its fat from it”; NASB “shall remove all its fat from it.”sn See the full discussion of the fat regulations in Lev 4:8-9 above.
  113. Leviticus 4:19 tn Heb “it”; the referent (the fat) has been specified in the translation for clarity. Only the fat is meant here, since the “rest” of the bull is mentioned in v. 21.
  114. Leviticus 4:20 sn Cf. Lev 4:11-12 above for the disposition of “the [rest of] the bull.”
  115. Leviticus 4:20 sn The focus of sin offering “atonement” was purging impurities from the tabernacle (see the note on Lev 1:4).
  116. Leviticus 4:20 tn Heb “there shall be forgiveness to them” or “it shall be forgiven to them.”
  117. Leviticus 4:21 sn See the note on the word “slaughter” in v. 15.
  118. Leviticus 4:21 tn Heb “And he shall bring out the bull to from outside to the camp.”
  119. Leviticus 4:22 tn This section begins with the relative pronoun אֲשֶׁר (ʾasher) which usually means “who” or “which,” but here means “whenever.”
  120. Leviticus 4:22 tn See the Lev 4:2 note on “straying.”
  121. Leviticus 4:22 tn Heb “and does one from all the commandments of the Lord his God which must not be done”; cf. NRSV “ought not to be done”; NIV “does what is forbidden in any of the commands.”
  122. Leviticus 4:23 tn Heb “or his sin which he sinned in it is made known to him”; NAB “if he learns of the sin he committed.”
  123. Leviticus 4:23 tn Lev 4:22b-23a is difficult. The present translation suggests that there are two possible legal situations envisioned, separated by the Hebrew אוֹ (ʾo, “or”) at the beginning of v. 23. Lev 4:22b refers to any case in which the leader readily admits his guilt (i.e., “pleads guilty”), whereas v. 23a refers to cases where the leader is convicted of his guilt by legal action (“his sin…is made known to him”). See R. E. Averbeck, NIDOTTE 2:95-96; Lev 4:27-28; and esp. the notes on Lev 5:1 below.
  124. Leviticus 4:23 tn Heb “a he-goat of goats, a male without defect”; cf. NLT “with no physical defects.”
  125. Leviticus 4:24 tn The LXX has a plural form here and also for the same verb later in the verse. See the note on Lev 1:5a.
  126. Leviticus 4:26 tn Heb “Then he”; the referent has been specified in the translation for clarity. Based on the parallel statements in 4:10 and 4:31, it is the priest who performs this action rather than the person who brought the offering.
  127. Leviticus 4:26 sn The focus of sin offering “atonement” was purging impurities from the tabernacle (see the note on Lev 1:4).
  128. Leviticus 4:26 tn Heb “from.” In this phrase the preposition מִן (min) may be referring to the reason or cause (“on account of, because of”; GKC 383 §119.z). As J. E. Hartley (Leviticus [WBC], 47) points out, “from” may refer to the removal of the sin, but is an awkward expression. Hartley also suggests that the phrasing might be “an elliptical expression for יְכַפֵּר עַל לְטַהֵר אֶת־מִן, (yekhapper ʿal… letaher ʾet… min) ‘he will make expiation for…to cleanse…from…,’ as in 16:30.”
  129. Leviticus 4:26 tn Heb “there shall be forgiveness to him” or “it shall be forgiven to him” (KJV similar).
  130. Leviticus 4:27 tn Heb “an individual from the people of the land”; cf. NASB “anyone of the common people” (KJV, ASV both similar); NAB “a private person.”
  131. Leviticus 4:27 tn Heb “If one person sins by straying, from the people of the land.” See Lev 4:2 for a note on “straying.”
  132. Leviticus 4:27 tn Heb “by doing it, one from the commandments of the Lord which must not be done.”
  133. Leviticus 4:28 tn Heb “or his sin which he sinned is made known to him”; cf. NCV “when that person learns about his sin.”
  134. Leviticus 4:28 tn Lev 4:27b-28a is essentially the same as 4:22b-23a (see the notes there).
  135. Leviticus 4:28 tn Heb “a she-goat of goats, a female without defect”; NAB “an unblemished she-goat.”
  136. Leviticus 4:28 tn Heb “on his sin.”
  137. Leviticus 4:29 tc The LXX has a plural form here (see v. 24 above and the note on Lev 1:5a).
  138. Leviticus 4:31 sn The focus of sin offering “atonement” was purging impurities from the tabernacle (see the note on Lev 1:4).
  139. Leviticus 4:31 tn Heb “there shall be forgiveness to him” or “it shall be forgiven to him” (KJV similar).
  140. Leviticus 4:35 tn Heb “Then he”; the referent has been specified in the translation for clarity. Here “he” refers to the offerer rather than the priest (contrast the clauses before and after).
  141. Leviticus 4:35 sn The focus of sin offering “atonement” was purging impurities from the tabernacle (see the note on Lev 1:4).
  142. Leviticus 4:35 tn Heb “there shall be forgiveness to him” or “it shall be forgiven to him” (KJV similar).
  143. Leviticus 5:1 tn Heb “And a person when he sins.” Most English versions translate this as the protasis of a conditional clause: “if a person sins” (NASB, NIV).sn The same expression occurs in Lev 4:2 where it introduces sins done “by straying unintentionally from any of the commandments of the Lord which must not be done” (see the notes there). Lev 5:1-13 is an additional section of sin offering regulations directed at violations other than those referred to by this expression in Lev 4:2 (see esp. 5:1-6), and expanding on the offering regulations for the common person in Lev 4:27-35 with concessions to the poor common person (5:7-13).
  144. Leviticus 5:1 tn The words “against one who fails to testify” are not in the Hebrew text, but have been supplied to make sense of the remark about the “curse” (“imprecation” or “oath”; cf. ASV “adjuration”; NIV “public charge”) for the modern reader. For the interpretation of this verse reflected in the present translation see J. Milgrom, Leviticus (AB), 1:292-97.
  145. Leviticus 5:1 tn The words “what had happened” are not in the Hebrew text, but are implied.
  146. Leviticus 5:1 tn Heb “and hears a voice of curse, and he is a witness or he saw or he knew, if he does not declare.”
  147. Leviticus 5:1 tn Heb “and he shall bear his iniquity.” The rendering “bear the punishment (for the iniquity)” reflects the use of the word “iniquity” to refer to the punishment for iniquity (cf. NRSV, NLT “subject to punishment”). It is sometimes referred to as the consequential use of the term (cf. Lev 5:17; 7:18; 10:17; etc.).
  148. Leviticus 5:2 tc The insertion of the words “when there is” is a reflection of the few Hebrew mss, Smr, and LXX that have כִּי (ki, “when, if”; cf. vv. 3 and esp. 4) rather than the MT’s אֲשֶׁר (ʾasher, “who”). Many English versions render this as a conditional clause (“if”).
  149. Leviticus 5:2 tn The word “ceremonially” has been supplied in the translation to clarify that the uncleanness involved is ritual or ceremonial in nature.
  150. Leviticus 5:2 tn Heb “and it is hidden from him,” meaning that the person who contracted the ceremonial uncleanness was not aware at the time what had happened, but later found out that he had become ceremonially unclean. This same phrase occurs again in both vv. 3 and 4.
  151. Leviticus 5:2 sn Lev 5:2-3 are parallel laws of uncleanness (contracted from animals and people, respectively), and both seem to assume that the contraction of uncleanness was originally unknown to the person (vv. 2 and 3) but became known to him or her at a later time (v. 3; i.e., “has come to know” in v. 3 is to be assumed for v. 2 as well). Uncleanness itself did not make a person “guilty” unless he or she failed to handle it according to the normal purification regulations (see, e.g., “wash his clothes and bathe with water, and he will be unclean till evening,” Lev 15:5 NIV; cf. Lev 11:39-40; 15:5-12, 16-24; Num 19, etc.). The problem here in Lev 5:2-3 is that, because the person had not been aware of his or her uncleanness, he or she had incurred guilt for not carrying out these regular procedures, and it would now be too late for that. Thus, the unclean person needs to bring a sin offering to atone for the contamination caused by his or her neglect of the purity regulations.
  152. Leviticus 5:3 tn Heb “or if he touches uncleanness of mankind to any of his uncleanness which he becomes unclean in it.”
  153. Leviticus 5:4 tn Heb “to speak thoughtlessly”; cf. NAB “rashly utters an oath.”
  154. Leviticus 5:4 tn Heb “and is guilty to one from these,” probably referring here to any of “these” things about which one might swear a thoughtless oath (J. E. Hartley, Leviticus [WBC], 45), with the word “oath” supplied in the translation for clarity. Another possibility is that “to one from these” is a dittography from v. 5 (cf. the note on v. 5a), and that v. 4 ends with “and is guilty” like vv. 2 and 3 (J. Milgrom, Leviticus [AB], 1:300).
  155. Leviticus 5:5 tn Heb “and it shall happen when he becomes guilty to one from these,” referring to any of “these” possible transgressions in Lev 5:1-4. The Cairo Geniza Hb ms, the LXX, and the Latin Vulgate omit this clause, possibly due to homoioteleuton because of the repetition of “to one from these” from the end of v. 4 in v. 5a (cf. the note on v. 4b).sn What all the transgressions in Lev 5:1-4 have in common is that the time is past for handling the original situation properly (i.e., testifying in court, following purity regulations, or fulfilling an oath), so now the person has become guilty and needs to follow corrective sacrificial procedures.
  156. Leviticus 5:5 tn Heb “which he sinned on it”; cf. ASV “confess that wherein he hath sinned”; NCV “must tell how he sinned.”
  157. Leviticus 5:6 tn In this context the word for “guilt” (אָשָׁם, ʾasham) refers to the “penalty” for incurring guilt, the so-called consequential אָשָׁם (J. Milgrom, Leviticus [AB], 1:303; cf. the note on Lev 5:1).
  158. Leviticus 5:6 sn The focus of sin offering “atonement” was purging impurities from the tabernacle (see the note on Lev 1:4).
  159. Leviticus 5:6 tn See the note on 4:26 regarding the use of מִן (min).
  160. Leviticus 5:7 tn Heb “and if his hand does not reach enough of a flock animal” (see the note on v. 11 below). The term translated “animal from the flock” (שֶׂה, seh) is often translated “lamb” (e.g., KJV, NASB, NIV, NCV) or “sheep” (e.g., NRSV, TEV, NLT), but it clearly includes either a sheep or a goat here (cf. v. 6), referring to the smaller pasture animals as opposed to the larger ones (i.e., cattle; cf. 4:3). Some English versions use the more generic “animal” (e.g., NAB, CEV).
  161. Leviticus 5:7 tn Heb “and he shall bring his guilt which he sinned,” which is an abbreviated form of Lev 5:6, “and he shall bring his [penalty for] guilt to the Lord for his sin which he committed.” The words “for his sin” have been left out in v. 7, and “to the Lord” has been moved so that it follows the mention of the birds.
  162. Leviticus 5:7 tn See the note on Lev 1:14 above.
  163. Leviticus 5:8 tn Heb “he.” The subject (“he”) refers to the priest here, not the offerer who presented the birds to the priest (cf. v. 8a).
  164. Leviticus 5:8 sn The action seems to involve both a twisting action, breaking the neck of the bird and severing its vertebrae, as well as pinching or nipping the skin, but in this case not severing the head from the main body (note the rest of this verse).
  165. Leviticus 5:8 tn Heb “he shall not divide [it]” (see J. Milgrom, Leviticus [AB], 1:305).
  166. Leviticus 5:9 tn The Hebrew verb וְהִזָּה (vehizzah, Hiphil of נָזָה, nazah) does indeed mean “sprinkle” or “splatter” (cf. Lev 4:6, 17). Contrast “splash” in Lev 1:5, etc. (זָרָק, zaraq).
  167. Leviticus 5:9 tn Heb “the remainder in the blood.” The preposition ב (bet, “in”) is used here to mean “some among” a whole collection of something.
  168. Leviticus 5:10 tn The word “bird” is not in the Hebrew text, but is supplied in the translation for clarity.
  169. Leviticus 5:10 sn The term “[standard] regulation” (מִשְׁפָּט, mishpat) here refers to the set of regulations for burnt offering birds in Lev 1:14-17.
  170. Leviticus 5:10 sn The focus of sin offering “atonement” was purging impurities from the tabernacle (see the note on Lev 1:4).
  171. Leviticus 5:10 tn See the note on 4:26 with regard to מִן, min.
  172. Leviticus 5:10 tn Heb “there shall be forgiveness to him” or “it shall be forgiven to him” (KJV similar).
  173. Leviticus 5:11 tn Heb “and if his hand does not reach [or is not sufficient] to”; cf. NASB “if his means are insufficient for.” The expression is the same as that in Lev 5:7 above except for the verb: נָשַׂג (nasag, “to collect, to reach, to be sufficient”) is used here, but נָגַע (nagah, “to touch, to reach”) is used in v. 7. Smr has the former in both v. 7 and 11.
  174. Leviticus 5:11 tn See the note on Lev 1:14 above (cf. also 5:7).
  175. Leviticus 5:11 tn Heb “and he shall bring his offering which he sinned.” Like the similar expression in v. 7 above (see the note there), this is an abbreviated form of Lev 5:6, “and he shall bring his [penalty for] guilt to the Lord for his sin which he committed.” Here the words “to the Lord for his sin” have been left out, and “his [penalty for] guilt” has been changed to “his offering.”
  176. Leviticus 5:11 sn A tenth of an ephah would be about 2.3 liters, one day’s ration for a single person (J. Milgrom, Leviticus [AB], 1:306). English versions handle the amount somewhat differently, cf. NCV “about two quarts”; TEV “one kilogramme”; CEV “two pounds.”
  177. Leviticus 5:11 tn See the note on Lev 2:1 above.
  178. Leviticus 5:12 sn The “memorial portion” (אַזְכָּרָה, ʾazkarah) was the part of the grain offering that was burnt on the altar (Lev 2:2), as opposed to the remainder, which was normally consumed by the priests (Lev 2:3; see the full regulations in Lev 6:14-23 [6:7-16 HT]). It was probably intended to call to mind (i.e., memorialize) before the Lord the reason for the presentation of the particular offering (see the remarks in R. E. Averbeck, NIDOTTE 1:335-39).
  179. Leviticus 5:13 sn The focus of sin offering “atonement” was purging impurities from the tabernacle (see the note on Lev 1:4).
  180. Leviticus 5:13 tn Heb “from one from these,” referring to the four kinds of violations of the law delineated in Lev 5:1-4 (see the note on Lev 5:5 above and cf. Lev 4:27).
  181. Leviticus 5:13 tn Heb “there shall be forgiveness to him” or “it shall be forgiven to him” (KJV similar).
  182. Leviticus 5:13 tn Heb “and it”; the referent (the remaining portion of the offering) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
  183. Leviticus 5:13 tn Heb “and it shall be to the priest like the grain offering,” referring to the rest of the grain that was not offered on the altar (cf. the regulations in Lev 2:3, 10).
  184. Leviticus 5:14 sn The quotation introduced here extends from Lev 5:14 through 5:19, encompassing the first main section of guilt offering regulations. Compare the notes on Lev 1:1; 4:1; and 6:1 [5:20 HT].
  185. Leviticus 5:15 tn Heb “trespasses a trespass” (verb and direct object from the same Hebrew root, מַעַל, maʿal); cf. NIV “commits a violation.” The word refers to some kind of overstepping of the boundary between that which is common (i.e., available for common use by common people) and that which is holy (i.e., to be used only for holy purposes because it has been consecrated to the Lord, see further below). See the note on Lev 10:10.
  186. Leviticus 5:15 tn See Lev 4:2 above for a note on “straying.”
  187. Leviticus 5:15 sn Heb “from the holy things of the Lord.” The Hebrew expression here has the same structure as Lev 4:2, “from any of the commandments of the Lord.” The latter introduces the sin offering regulations and the former the guilt offering regulations. The sin offering deals with violations of “any of the commandments,” whereas the guilt offering focuses specifically on violations of regulations regarding “holy things” (i.e., things that have been consecrated to the Lord; see the full discussion in J. Milgrom, Leviticus [AB], 1:320-27).
  188. Leviticus 5:15 tn Here the word for “guilt” (אָשָׁם, ʾasham) refers to the “penalty” for incurring guilt, the so-called consequential use of אָשָׁם (ʾasham; see J. Milgrom, Leviticus [AB], 1:303).
  189. Leviticus 5:15 tn Heb “in your valuation, silver of shekels, in the shekel of the sanctuary.” The translation offered here suggests that, instead of a ram, the guilt offering could be presented in the form of money (see, e.g., NRSV; J. Milgrom, Leviticus [AB], 1:326-27). Others still maintain the view that it refers to the value of the ram that was offered (see, e.g., NIV “of the proper value in silver, according to the sanctuary shekel”; also NAB, NLT; J. E. Hartley, Leviticus [WBC], 72-73, 81). sn The sanctuary shekel was about 10 grams (= ca. two-fifths of an ounce; J. E. Shepherd, NIDOTTE 4:237-38).
  190. Leviticus 5:15 tn The word for “guilt offering” (sometimes translated “reparation offering”) is the same as “guilt” earlier in the verse (rendered there “[penalty for] guilt”). One can tell which is intended only by the context.sn The primary purpose of the guilt offering was to “atone” (see the note on Lev 1:4 above) for “trespassing” on the Lord’s “holy things” (see later in this verse) or the property of others in the community (Lev 6:1-7 [5:20-26 HT]; 19:20-22; Num 5:5-10). It was closely associated with reconsecration of the Lord’s sacred things or his sacred people (see, e.g., Lev 14:12-18; Num 6:11b-12). Moreover, there was usually an associated reparation made for the trespass, including restitution of that which was violated plus one-fifth of its value as a fine (Lev 5:16; 6:5 [5:24 HT]). See R. E. Averbeck, NIDOTTE 1:557-66.
  191. Leviticus 5:16 tn Heb “and which he sinned from the holy thing.”
  192. Leviticus 5:16 sn Regarding “make atonement” see the note on Lev 1:4.
  193. Leviticus 5:16 tn Heb “there shall be forgiveness to him” or “it shall be forgiven to him” (KJV similar).
  194. Leviticus 5:17 tn Heb “and does one from all of the commandments of the Lord that must not be done.”
  195. Leviticus 5:17 tn The words “at the time” are not in the Hebrew text, but are implied.
  196. Leviticus 5:17 tn Heb “and he did not know, and he shall be guilty and he shall bear his iniquity” (for the rendering “bear his punishment [for iniquity]”) see the note on Lev 5:1.) This portion of v. 17 is especially difficult. The translation offered here suggests (as in many other English versions) that the offender did not originally know that he had violated the Lord’s commandments, but then came to know it and dealt with it accordingly (cf. the corresponding sin offering section in Lev 5:1-4). Another possibility is that it refers to a situation where a person suspects that he violated something although he does not recollect it. Thus, he brings a guilt offering for his suspected violation (J. Milgrom, Leviticus [AB], 1:331-34, 361-63). See also R. E. Averbeck, NIDOTTE 1:561-62.
  197. Leviticus 5:18 tn The statement here is condensed. See the full expression in 5:15 and the note there.
  198. Leviticus 5:18 sn Regarding “make atonement” see the note on Lev 1:4.
  199. Leviticus 5:18 tn Heb “on his straying which he strayed.” See the note on Lev 4:2.
  200. Leviticus 5:18 tn Heb “there shall be forgiveness to him” or “it shall be forgiven to him” (KJV and NASB both similar).
  201. Leviticus 6:1 sn Beginning with 6:1, the verse numbers through 6:30 in the English Bible differ from the verse numbers in the Hebrew text (BHS), with 6:1 ET = 5:20 HT, 6:2 ET = 5:21 HT, 6:8 ET = 6:1 HT, etc., through 6:30 ET = 6:23 HT. Beginning with 7:1 the verse numbers in the English text and Hebrew text are again the same.
  202. Leviticus 6:1 sn This paragraph is Lev 6:1-7 in the English Bible but Lev 5:20-26 in the Hebrew text. The quotation introduced by v. 1 extends from Lev 6:2 (5:21 HT) through 6:7 (5:26 HT), encompassing the third main section of guilt offering regulations. Compare the notes on Lev 1:1; 4:1; and 5:14 above.
  203. Leviticus 6:2 tn Heb “trespasses a trespass” (verb and direct object from the same Hebrew root מַעַל, maʿal). See the note on 5:15.
  204. Leviticus 6:2 tn Or “neighbor” (ASV, NAB, NIV, NRSV, NLT); NASB “companion”; TEV “a fellow-Israelite.”
  205. Leviticus 6:2 tn Heb “has extorted his neighbor”; ASV “oppressed”; NRSV “defrauded.”
  206. Leviticus 6:3 tn Heb “and swears on falsehood”; cf. CEV “deny something while under oath.”
  207. Leviticus 6:3 tn Heb “on one from all which the man shall do to sin in them.”
  208. Leviticus 6:4 tn Heb “and it shall happen, when he sins and becomes guilty,” which is both resumptive of the previous (vv. 2-3) and the conclusion to the protasis (cf. “then” introducing the next clause as the apodosis). In this case, “becomes guilty” (cf. NASB, NIV) probably refers to his legal status as one who has been convicted of a crime in court; thus the translation “he is found guilty.” See R. E. Averbeck, NIDOTTE 1:559-61.
  209. Leviticus 6:4 tn Heb “that had been held in trust with him.”
  210. Leviticus 6:5 tn Heb “or from all which he swears on it to falsehood.”
  211. Leviticus 6:5 tn Heb “in its head.” This refers “the full amount” in terms of the “principal,” the original item or amount obtained illegally (J. Milgrom, Leviticus [AB], 1:338; J. E. Hartley, Leviticus [WBC], 84).
  212. Leviticus 6:5 tn Heb “to whom it is to him he shall give it in the day of his being guilty.” The present translation is based on the view that he has been found guilty through the legal process (see the note on v. 4 above; cf., e.g., TEV and B. A. Levine, Leviticus [JPSTC], 33-34). Others translate the latter part as “in the day he offers his guilt [reparation] offering” (e.g., NIV and J. E. Hartley, Leviticus [WBC], 73, 84), or “in the day he realizes his guilt” (e.g., NRSV and J. Milgrom, Leviticus [AB], 1:319, 338).
  213. Leviticus 6:6 tn The words “into silver shekels” are supplied here. See the full expression in Lev 5:15, and compare 5:18. Cf. NRSV “or its equivalent”; NLT “or the animal’s equivalent value in silver.”
  214. Leviticus 6:7 sn Regarding “make atonement” see the note on Lev 1:4.
  215. Leviticus 6:7 tn Heb “there shall be forgiveness to him” or “it shall be forgiven to him” (KJV similar).
  216. Leviticus 6:7 tn Heb “on one from all which he does to become guilty in it”; NAB “whatever guilt he may have incurred.”
  217. Leviticus 6:8 sn Lev 6:8 in the English Bible = 6:1 in the Hebrew text. See also the note on 6:1.
  218. Leviticus 6:8 sn The following paragraphs are Lev 6:8-30 in the English Bible but 6:1-23 in the Hebrew text. This initial verse makes the special priestly regulations for the people’s burnt and grain offerings into a single unit (i.e., Lev 6:8-18 [6:1-11 HT]; cf. Lev 1-2 above). Note also the separate introductions for various priestly regulations in Lev 6:19 [12 HT], 24 [17 HT], and for the common people in Lev 7:22, 28 below.
  219. Leviticus 6:9 tn Heb “It is the burnt offering on the hearth.”
  220. Leviticus 6:9 tn Heb “in it.” In this context “in it” apparently refers to the “hearth” which was on top of the altar.
  221. Leviticus 6:10 tn The exact nature of this article of the priest’s clothing is difficult to determine. Cf. KJV, ASV “breeches”; NAB “drawers”; NASB, NIV, NRSV, NLT “undergarments”; NCV “underclothes”; CEV “underwear”; TEV “shorts.”
  222. Leviticus 6:10 tn Heb “he shall lift up the fatty ashes which the fire shall consume the burnt offering on the altar.”
  223. Leviticus 6:10 tn Heb “it,” referring the “fatty ashes” as a single unit.
  224. Leviticus 6:11 tn The word “ceremonially” has been supplied in the translation to clarify that the uncleanness of the place involved is ritual or ceremonial in nature.
  225. Leviticus 6:12 tn Heb “in it,” apparently referring to the “hearth” which was on top of the altar (cf. the note on v. 9).
  226. Leviticus 6:14 tn Heb “offering it, the sons of Aaron.” The verb is a Hiphil infinitive absolute, which is used here in place of the finite verb as either a jussive (GKC 346 §113.cc, “let the sons of Aaron offer”) or more likely an injunctive in light of the verbs that follow (Joüon 2:430 §123.v, “the sons of Aaron shall/must offer”).
  227. Leviticus 6:15 tn Heb “and he”; the referent has been specified in the translation for clarity. The “he” refers to the officiating priest. A similar shift between singular and plural occurs in Lev 1:7-9, but see the note on Lev 1:7 and J. E. Hartley, Leviticus [WBC], 89 for the possibility of a textual defect.
  228. Leviticus 6:15 tn Heb “shall take up from it with his hand some of the choice wheat flour of the grain offering.”
  229. Leviticus 6:15 sn See the note on Lev 2:2.
  230. Leviticus 6:15 tc Smr reading, which includes the locative ה (he, translated “on” the altar), is preferred here. This is the normal construction with the verb “offer up in smoke” in Lev 1-7 (see the note on Lev 1:9).
  231. Leviticus 6:15 tn Heb “and he shall offer up in smoke [on] the altar a soothing aroma, its memorial portion, to the Lord.”
  232. Leviticus 6:17 tn Heb “It must not be baked leavened” (cf. Lev 2:11). The noun “leaven” is traditional in English versions (cf. KJV, ASV, NASB, NRSV), but “yeast” is more commonly used today.
  233. Leviticus 6:17 tn Heb “holiness of holinesses [or holy of holies] it is”; cf. NAB “most sacred.”
  234. Leviticus 6:18 tn Or “a perpetual regulation”; cf. NASB “a permanent ordinance”; NRSV “as their perpetual due.”
  235. Leviticus 6:18 tn Heb “for your generations”; cf. NIV “for the generations to come.”
  236. Leviticus 6:18 tn Heb “touches them”; the referent has been specified in the translation for clarity. In this context “them” must refer to the “gifts” of the Lord.
  237. Leviticus 6:18 tn Or “anyone/anything that touches them shall become holy” (J. Milgrom, Leviticus [AB], 1:443-56). The question is whether this refers to the contagious nature of holy objects (cf. NAB, NASB, NIV, NRSV, NLT) or whether it simply sets forth a demand that anyone who touches the holy gifts of the Lord must be a holy person (cf. CEV). See R. E. Averbeck, NIDOTTE 2:900-902.
  238. Leviticus 6:19 sn See the note on Lev 6:8 [6:1 HT] above.
  239. Leviticus 6:20 sn A tenth of an ephah is about 2.3 liters, one day’s ration for a single person (J. Milgrom, Leviticus [AB], 1:306).
  240. Leviticus 6:20 tn For the rendering “choice wheat flour” see the note on Lev 2:1.
  241. Leviticus 6:21 tn The term rendered here “well soaked” (see, e.g., NRSV; the Hebrew term is מֻרְבֶּכֶת, murbekhet) occurs only three times (here; 7:12, and 1 Chr 23:29), and is sometimes translated “well-mixed” (e.g., NIV, NCV, NLT; NASB “well stirred”; NAB “well kneaded”). The meaning is uncertain (J. Milgrom, Leviticus [AB], 1:399-400), but in Lev 7:12 it stands parallel to already prepared grain offerings either “mixed” (the Hebrew term is בְּלוּלֹת (belulot), not מֻרְבֶּכֶת as in Lev 6:21 [6:14 HT]) or anointed with oil.
  242. Leviticus 6:21 tn Heb “broken bits [?] of a grain offering of pieces,” but the meaning of the Hebrew term rendered here “broken bits” (תֻּפִינֵי, tufine) is quite uncertain. Some take it from the Hebrew verb “to break up, to crumble” (פַּת [pat]; e.g., the Syriac, NAB, NIV, NLT “broken” pieces) and others from “to bake” (אָפַה, ʾafah; e.g., NRSV “baked pieces”). For a good summary of other proposed options, see J. E. Hartley, Leviticus (WBC), 90. Compare Lev 2:5-6 for the general regulations regarding this manner of grain offering. Similar but less problematic terminology is used there.
  243. Leviticus 6:22 tn Heb “And the anointed priest under him.”
  244. Leviticus 6:24 sn See the note on Lev 6:8 [6:1 HT].
  245. Leviticus 6:25 tn Heb “holiness of holinesses [or holy of holies] it is.” Cf. NAB “most sacred”; CEV “very sacred”; TEV “very holy.”
  246. Leviticus 6:27 tn Heb “on the garment”; NCV “on any clothes”; CEV “on the clothes of the priest.”
  247. Leviticus 6:27 tc The translation “you must wash” is based on the MT as it stands (cf. NASB, NIV). Smr, LXX, Syriac, Tg. Ps.-J., and the Vulgate have a third person masculine singular passive form (Pual), “[the garment] must be washed” (cf. NAB, NRSV, NLT). This could also be supported from the verbs in the following verse, and it requires only a repointing of the Hebrew text with no change in consonants. See the remarks in J. E. Hartley, Leviticus (WBC), 90 and J. Milgrom, Leviticus (AB), 1:404.
  248. Leviticus 6:28 tn Heb “it”; the words “that vessel” are supplied in the translation to clarify the referent.
  249. Leviticus 6:29 tn Heb “holiness of holinesses [or holy of holies] it is” (also in 7:1).
  250. Leviticus 6:30 tn Heb “burned with fire,” an expression which is sometimes redundant in English, but here means “burned up,” “burned up entirely.”
  251. Leviticus 7:2 tn Heb “he”; the referent (the officiating priest) has been specified in the translation for clarity. This priest was responsible for any actions involving direct contact with the altar (e.g., the splashing of the blood).
  252. Leviticus 7:2 tn See the note on Lev 1:5.
  253. Leviticus 7:3 tn Heb “then he.” This pronoun refers to the offerer, who was responsible for slaughtering the animal. Contrast v. 2 above and v. 5 below.
  254. Leviticus 7:4 tn See the notes on Lev 3:3-4.
  255. Leviticus 7:5 tn See the note on Lev 1:9 above.
  256. Leviticus 7:6 tn Heb “holiness of holinesses [or holy of holies] it is”; NAB “most sacred”; TEV “very holy.”
  257. Leviticus 7:7 tn Heb “like the sin offering like the guilt offering, one law to them.”
  258. Leviticus 7:9 tn Heb “and” rather than “or” (cf. also the next “or”).
  259. Leviticus 7:9 tn Heb “and all made in the pan”; cf. KJV “fryingpan”; NAB “deep-fried in a pot.”
  260. Leviticus 7:10 tn Heb “a man like his brother.”
  261. Leviticus 7:11 tn This “he” pronoun refers to the offerer. Smr and LXX have plural “they.”
  262. Leviticus 7:12 tn Or “for a thank offering.”
  263. Leviticus 7:12 tn See the notes on Lev 2:4.
  264. Leviticus 7:12 tn See the note on Lev 6:21 [6:14 HT].
  265. Leviticus 7:12 tn Heb “choice wheat flour well-soaked ring-shaped loaves.” See the note on Lev 2:1.
  266. Leviticus 7:13 tn The rendering “this [grain] offering” is more literally “his offering,” but it refers to the series of grain offerings listed just previously in v. 12.
  267. Leviticus 7:13 tn The words “which regularly accompany” are not in the Hebrew text, but are supplied for clarity.sn The translation “[which regularly accompany]…” is based on the practice of bringing bread (and wine) to eat with the portions of the peace-offering meat eaten by the priests and worshipers (see v. 14 and Num 15:1-13). This was in addition to the memorial portion of the unleavened bread that was offered to the Lord on the altar (cf. Lev 2:2, 9, and the note on 7:12).
  268. Leviticus 7:14 tn Here the Hebrew text reads “offering” (קָרְבָּן, qorban), not “grain offering” (מִנְחָה, minkhah), but in this context the term refers once again to the list in 7:12.
  269. Leviticus 7:14 tn The term rendered “contribution offering” is תְּרוּמָה (terumah), which generally refers to that which is set aside from the offerings to the Lord as prebends for the officiating priests (cf. esp. Lev 7:28-34 and R. E. Averbeck, NIDOTTE 4:335-37). Cf. TEV “as a special contribution.”
  270. Leviticus 7:15 tn In the verse “his” refers to the offerer.
  271. Leviticus 7:16 tn For the distinction between votive and freewill offerings see the note on Lev 22:23 and the literature cited there.
  272. Leviticus 7:16 tn Heb “and on the next day and the left over from it shall be eaten.”
  273. Leviticus 7:17 tn Heb “burned with fire,” an expression which is sometimes redundant in English, but here means “burned up,” “burned up entirely” (likewise in v. 19).
  274. Leviticus 7:18 tn Or “desecrated,” or “defiled,” or “forbidden.” For this difficult term see J. Milgrom, Leviticus (AB), 1:422. Cf. NIV “it is impure”; NCV “it will become unclean”; NLT “will be contaminated.”
  275. Leviticus 7:18 tn Heb “his iniquity he shall bear” (cf. Lev 5:1); NIV “will be held responsible”; NRSV “shall incur guilt”; TEV “will suffer the consequences.”
  276. Leviticus 7:19 tn The word “ceremonially” has been supplied in the translation both here and in the following sentence to clarify that the uncleanness involved is ritual or ceremonial in nature.
  277. Leviticus 7:19 tn The Hebrew has simply “the flesh,” but this certainly refers to “clean” flesh in contrast to the unclean flesh in the first half of the verse.
  278. Leviticus 7:20 tn Heb “and his unclean condition is on him.”
  279. Leviticus 7:20 sn The exact meaning of this penalty clause is not certain. It could mean that he will be executed, whether by God or by man, he will be excommunicated from sanctuary worship and/or community benefits (cf. TEV, CEV), or his line will be terminated by God (i.e., extirpation), etc. See J. E. Hartley, Leviticus (WBC), 100; J. Milgrom, Leviticus (AB), 1:457-60; and B. A. Levine, Leviticus (JPSTC), 241-42 for further discussion.
  280. Leviticus 7:21 sn For these categories of unclean animals see Lev 11.
  281. Leviticus 7:21 sn For the interpretation of this last clause see the note on Lev 7:20.
  282. Leviticus 7:22 sn See the note on Lev 6:8 [6:1 HT] above.
  283. Leviticus 7:24 tn Heb “carcass,” referring to the carcass of an animal that has died on its own, not the carcass of an animal slaughtered for sacrifice or killed by wild beasts. This has been clarified in the translation by supplying the phrase “of natural causes”; cf. NAB, TEV “that has died a natural death.”
  284. Leviticus 7:24 tn Heb “shall be used for any work”; cf. NIV, NLT “may be used for any other purpose.”
  285. Leviticus 7:25 sn See the note on Lev 7:20.
  286. Leviticus 7:26 tn Heb “and any blood you must not eat in any of your dwelling places, to the bird and to the animal.”
  287. Leviticus 7:27 sn See the note on Lev 7:20.
  288. Leviticus 7:28 sn See the note on Lev 6:8 [6:1 HT].
  289. Leviticus 7:30 tn Heb “on the breast.”
  290. Leviticus 7:30 tc Many Hebrew mss and some versions (esp. the LXX) limit the offerings in the last part of this verse to the fat portions, specifically, the fat and the fat lobe of the liver (see the BHS footnote). The verse is somewhat awkward in Hebrew but nevertheless correct.tn Heb “the breast to wave it, a wave offering before the Lord.” Other possible translations are “to elevate the breast [as] an elevation offering before the Lord” (cf. NRSV) or “to present the breast [as] a presentation offering before the Lord.” See J. E. Hartley, Leviticus (WBC), 91, J. Milgrom, Leviticus (AB), 1:430-31, 461-72, and R. E. Averbeck, NIDOTTE 3:63-67.
  291. Leviticus 7:32 tn Older English versions (e.g., KJV, ASV) translate this Hebrew term (תְּרוּמָה, terumah) “heave offering,” derived from the idea of “to raise, to lift” found in the verbal root (cf. NAB “a raised offering”). “Contribution offering” is a better English rendering because it refers to something “taken out from” (i.e., “lifted up from”; cf. the Hebrew term הֵרִים (herim) in, e.g., Lev 2:9; 4:8, etc.) the offering as a special contribution to the specific priest who presided over the offering procedures in any particular instance (see the next verse and R. E. Averbeck, NIDOTTE 4:335-37). Cf. TEV “as a special contribution”; NCV, NLT “as a gift.”
  292. Leviticus 7:34 tn Or “a perpetual regulation”; cf. NASB “as their due forever”; NRSV “as a perpetual due”; NLT “their regular share.”
  293. Leviticus 7:35 tn Heb “the day he”; the referent (Moses) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
  294. Leviticus 7:35 tn Heb “in the day of he presented them to serve as priests to the Lord.” The grammar here is relatively unusual. First, the verb “presented” appears to be in the perfect rather than the infinitive (but see GKC 531), the latter being normal in such temporal expressions. Second, the active verb form appears to be used as a passive plural (“they were presented”). However, if it is translated active and singular then Moses would be the subject: “on the day he [Moses] offered them [Aaron and his sons].”
  295. Leviticus 7:36 tn Heb “the day he”; the referent (Moses) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
  296. Leviticus 7:36 tn Heb “which the Lord commanded to give to them in the day he anointed them from the children of Israel.” Thus v. 36 is tied syntactically to v. 35 (see the note there).
  297. Leviticus 7:36 tn Heb “for your generations”; cf. NIV “for the generations to come”; TEV “for all time to come.”
  298. Leviticus 7:37 sn The Hebrew term translated “law” (תוֹרָה [torah]) occurs up to this point in the book only in Lev 6:9 [6:2 HT], 14 [7 HT], 25 [18 HT], 7:1, 7, 11, and here in 7:37. This suggests that Lev 7:37-38 is a summary of only this section of the book (i.e., Lev 6:8 [6:1 HT]-7:36), not all of Lev 1-7.
  299. Leviticus 7:37 tc In the MT only “the grain offering” lacks a connecting ו (vav). However, many Hebrew mss, Smr, LXX, Syriac, and a ms of Tg. Onq. have the ו (vav) on “the grain offering” as well.
  300. Leviticus 7:37 sn The inclusion of the “ordination offering” (מִלּוּאִים, milluʾim; the term apparently comes from the notion of “filling [of the hand],” cf. Lev 8:33) here anticipates Lev 8. It is a kind of peace offering, as the regulations in Lev 8:22-32 will show (cf. Exod 29:19-34). In the context of the ordination ritual for the priests it fits into the sequence of offerings as a peace offering would: sin offering (Lev 8:14-17), burnt and grain offering (Lev 8:18-21), and finally peace (i.e., ordination) offering (Lev 8:22-32). Moreover, in this case, Moses received the breast of the ordination offering as his due since he was the presiding priest over the sacrificial procedures (Lev 8:29; cf. Lev 7:30-31), while Aaron and his sons ate the portions that would have been consumed by the common worshipers in a regular peace-offering procedure (Exod 29:31-34; cf. Lev 7:15-18). For a general introduction to the peace offering see the note on Lev 3:1.
New English Translation (NET)

NET Bible® copyright ©1996-2017 by Biblical Studies Press, L.L.C. http://netbible.com All rights reserved.

  Back

1 of 1

You'll get this book and many others when you join Bible Gateway Plus. Learn more

Viewing of
Cross references
Footnotes