Genesis 1-15 New English Translation (NET Bible)
The Creation of the World
2 Now[e] the earth[f] was without shape and empty,[g] and darkness[h] was over the surface of the watery deep,[i] but the Spirit of God[j] was moving[k] over the surface[l] of the water.[m] 3 God said,[n] “Let there be[o] light.”[p] And there was light! 4 God saw[q] that the light was good,[r] so God separated[s] the light from the darkness. 5 God called[t] the light “day” and the darkness[u] “night.” There was evening, and there was morning, marking the first day.[v]
6 God said, “Let there be an expanse[w] in the midst of the waters and let it separate water[x] from water.” 7 So God made the expanse and separated the water under the expanse from the water above it.[y] It was so.[z] 8 God called the expanse “sky.”[aa] There was evening, and there was morning, a second day.
9 God said, “Let the water under the sky be gathered to one place[ab] and let dry ground appear.”[ac] It was so. 10 God called the dry ground “land”[ad] and the gathered waters he called “seas.” God saw that it was good.
11 God said, “Let the land produce vegetation:[ae] plants yielding seeds and[af] trees on the land bearing fruit with seed in it, according to their kinds.”[ag] It was so. 12 The land produced vegetation—plants yielding seeds according to their kinds, and trees bearing fruit with seed in it according to their kinds. God saw that it was good. 13 There was evening, and there was morning, a third day.
14 God said, “Let there be lights[ah] in the expanse[ai] of the sky to separate the day from the night, and let them be signs[aj] to indicate seasons and days and years, 15 and let them serve as lights in the expanse of the sky to give light on the earth.” It was so. 16 God made two great lights[ak]—the greater light to rule over the day and the lesser light to rule over the night. He made the stars also.[al] 17 God placed the lights[am] in the expanse of the sky to shine on the earth, 18 to preside over the day and the night, and to separate the light from the darkness.[an] God saw that it was good. 19 There was evening, and there was morning, a fourth day.
20 God said, “Let the water swarm with swarms[ao] of living creatures and let birds fly[ap] above the earth across the expanse of the sky.” 21 God created the great sea creatures[aq] and every living and moving thing with which the water swarmed, according to their kinds, and every winged bird according to its kind. God saw that it was good. 22 God blessed them[ar] and said, “Be fruitful and multiply and fill the water in the seas, and let the birds multiply on the earth.”[as] 23 There was evening, and there was morning, a fifth day.
24 God said, “Let the land produce living creatures according to their kinds: cattle, creeping things, and wild animals, each according to its kind.”[at] It was so. 25 God made the wild animals according to their kinds, the cattle according to their kinds, and all the creatures that creep along the ground according to their kinds. God saw that it was good.
26 Then God said, “Let us make[au] humankind[av] in our image, after our likeness,[aw] so they may rule[ax] over the fish of the sea and the birds of the air, over the cattle, and over all the earth,[ay] and over all the creatures that move[az] on the earth.”
28 God blessed[bd] them and said[be] to them, “Be fruitful and multiply! Fill the earth and subdue it![bf] Rule over the fish of the sea and the birds of the air and every creature that moves on the ground.”[bg] 29 Then God said, “I now[bh] give you every seed-bearing plant on the face of the entire earth and every tree that has fruit with seed in it. They will be yours for food.[bi] 30 And to all the animals of the earth, and to every bird of the air, and to all the creatures that move on the ground—everything that has living breath[bj] in it—I give[bk] every green plant for food.” It was so.
31 God saw all that he had made—and it was very good![bl] There was evening, and there was morning, the sixth day.
2 The heavens and the earth[bm] were completed with everything that was in them.[bn] 2 By[bo] the seventh day God finished the work that he had been doing,[bp] and he ceased[bq] on the seventh day all the work that he had been doing. 3 God blessed the seventh day and made it holy[br] because on it he ceased all the work that he[bs] had been doing in creation.[bt]
The Creation of Man and Woman
5 Now[bz] no shrub of the field had yet grown on the earth, and no plant of the field[ca] had yet sprouted, for the Lord God had not caused it to rain on the earth, and there was no man to cultivate the ground.[cb] 6 Springs[cc] would well up[cd] from the earth and water[ce] the whole surface of the ground.[cf] 7 The Lord God formed[cg] the man from the soil of the ground[ch] and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life,[ci] and the man became a living being.[cj]
8 The Lord God planted an orchard[ck] in the east,[cl] in Eden;[cm] and there he placed the man he had formed.[cn] 9 The Lord God made all kinds of trees grow from the soil,[co] every tree that was pleasing to look at[cp] and good for food. (Now[cq] the tree of life[cr] and the tree of the knowledge of good and evil[cs] were in the middle of the orchard.)
10 Now[ct] a river flows[cu] from Eden[cv] to water the orchard, and from there it divides[cw] into four headstreams.[cx] 11 The name of the first is Pishon; it runs through[cy] the entire land of Havilah, where there is gold. 12 (The gold of that land is pure;[cz] pearls[da] and lapis lazuli[db] are also there). 13 The name of the second river is Gihon; it runs through[dc] the entire land of Cush.[dd] 14 The name of the third river is Tigris; it runs along the east side of Assyria.[de] The fourth river is the Euphrates.
15 The Lord God took the man and placed[df] him in the orchard in[dg] Eden to care for it and to maintain it.[dh] 16 Then the Lord God commanded[di] the man, “You may freely eat[dj] fruit[dk] from every tree of the orchard, 17 but[dl] you must not eat[dm] from the tree of the knowledge of good and evil, for when[dn] you eat from it you will surely die.”[do]
18 The Lord God said, “It is not good for the man to be alone.[dp] I will make a companion[dq] for him who corresponds to him.”[dr] 19 The Lord God formed[ds] out of the ground every living animal of the field and every bird of the air. He brought them to the man to see what he would[dt] name them, and whatever the man called each living creature, that was its name. 20 So the man named all the animals, the birds of the air, and the living creatures of the field, but for Adam[du] no companion who corresponded to him was found.[dv] 21 So the Lord God caused the man to fall into a deep sleep,[dw] and while he was asleep,[dx] he took part of the man’s side[dy] and closed up the place with flesh.[dz] 22 Then the Lord God made[ea] a woman from the part he had taken out of the man, and he brought her to the man. 23 Then the man said,
The Temptation and the Fall
3 Now[el] the serpent[em] was shrewder[en] than any of the wild animals[eo] that the Lord God had made. He said to the woman, “Is it really true that[ep] God[eq] said, ‘You must not eat from any tree of the orchard’?”[er] 2 The woman said to the serpent, “We may eat[es] of the fruit from the trees of the orchard; 3 but concerning the fruit of the tree that is in the middle of the orchard God said, ‘You must not eat from it, and you must not touch it,[et] or else you will die.’”[eu] 4 The serpent said to the woman, “Surely you will not die,[ev] 5 for God knows that when you eat from it your eyes will open[ew] and you will be like God, knowing[ex] good and evil.”[ey]
6 When[ez] the woman saw that the tree produced fruit that was good for food,[fa] was attractive[fb] to the eye, and was desirable for making one wise,[fc] she took some of its fruit and ate it.[fd] She also gave some of it to her husband who was with her, and he ate it.[fe] 7 Then the eyes of both of them opened, and they knew they were naked; so they sewed fig leaves together and made coverings for themselves.
The Judgment Oracles of God at the Fall
8 Then the man and his wife heard the sound of the Lord God moving about[ff] in the orchard at the breezy time[fg] of the day, and they hid[fh] from the Lord God among the trees of the orchard. 9 But the Lord God called to[fi] the man and said to him, “Where are you?”[fj] 10 The man replied,[fk] “I heard you moving about[fl] in the orchard, and I was afraid because I was naked, so I hid.” 11 And the Lord God[fm] said, “Who told you that you were naked?[fn] Did you eat from the tree that I commanded you not to eat from?”[fo] 12 The man said, “The woman whom you gave me, she gave[fp] me some fruit[fq] from the tree and I ate it.” 13 So the Lord God said to the woman, “What is this[fr] you have done?” And the woman replied, “The serpent[fs] tricked[ft] me, and I ate.”
14 The Lord God said to the serpent,[fu]
“Because you have done this,
16 To the woman he said,
17 But to Adam[gj] he said,
“Because you obeyed[gk] your wife
20 The man[gr] named his wife Eve,[gs] because[gt] she was the mother of all the living.[gu] 21 The Lord God made garments from skin[gv] for Adam and his wife, and clothed them. 22 And the Lord God said, “Now[gw] that the man has become like one of us,[gx] knowing[gy] good and evil, he must not be allowed[gz] to stretch out his hand and take also from the tree of life and eat, and live forever.” 23 So the Lord God expelled him[ha] from the orchard in Eden to cultivate the ground from which he had been taken. 24 When he drove[hb] the man out, he placed on the eastern side[hc] of the orchard in Eden angelic sentries[hd] who used the flame of a whirling sword[he] to guard the way to the tree of life.
The Story of Cain and Abel
4 Now[hf] the man was intimate with[hg] his wife Eve, and she became pregnant[hh] and gave birth to Cain. Then she said, “I have created[hi] a man just as the Lord did!”[hj] 2 Then she gave birth[hk] to his brother Abel.[hl] Abel took care of the flocks, while Cain cultivated the ground.[hm]
3 At the designated time[hn] Cain brought some of the fruit of the ground for an offering[ho] to the Lord. 4 But Abel brought[hp] some of the firstborn of his flock—even the fattest[hq] of them. And the Lord was pleased with[hr] Abel and his offering, 5 but with Cain and his offering he was not pleased.[hs] So Cain became very angry,[ht] and his expression was downcast.[hu]
6 Then the Lord said to Cain, “Why are you angry, and why is your expression downcast? 7 Is it not true[hv] that if you do what is right, you will be fine?[hw] But if you do not do what is right, sin is crouching[hx] at the door. It desires to dominate you, but you must subdue it.”[hy]
9 Then the Lord said to Cain, “Where is your brother Abel?”[ic] And he replied, “I don’t know! Am I my brother’s guardian?”[id] 10 But the Lord said, “What have you done?[ie] The voice[if] of your brother’s blood is crying out to me from the ground! 11 So now you are banished[ig] from the ground, which has opened its mouth to receive your brother’s blood from your hand. 12 When you try to cultivate[ih] the ground it will no longer yield[ii] its best[ij] for you. You will be a homeless wanderer[ik] on the earth.”
13 Then Cain said to the Lord, “My punishment[il] is too great to endure![im] 14 Look, you are driving me off the land[in] today, and I must hide from your presence.[io] I will be a homeless wanderer on the earth; whoever finds me will kill me!” 15 But the Lord said to him, “All right then,[ip] if anyone kills Cain, Cain will be avenged seven times as much.”[iq] Then the Lord put a special mark[ir] on Cain so that no one who found him would strike him down.[is] 16 So Cain went out from the presence of the Lord and lived in the land of Nod,[it] east of Eden.
The Beginning of Civilization
17 Cain was intimate with[iu] his wife, and she became pregnant[iv] and gave birth to Enoch. Cain was building a city, and he named the city after[iw] his son Enoch. 18 To Enoch was born Irad, and Irad was the father of[ix] Mehujael. Mehujael was the father of Methushael, and Methushael was the father of Lamech.
19 Lamech took two wives for himself; the name of the first was Adah, and the name of the second was Zillah. 20 Adah gave birth to Jabal; he was the first[iy] of those who live in tents and keep[iz] livestock. 21 The name of his brother was Jubal; he was the first of all who play the harp and the flute. 22 Now Zillah also gave birth to Tubal-Cain, who heated metal and shaped[ja] all kinds of tools made of bronze and iron. The sister of Tubal-Cain was Naamah.
23 Lamech said to his wives,
“Adah and Zillah, listen to me!
25 And Adam was intimate with[jd] his wife again, and she gave birth to a son. She named him Seth, saying, “God has given[je] me another child[jf] in place of Abel because Cain killed him.” 26 And a son was also born to Seth, whom he named Enosh. At that time people[jg] began to worship[jh] the Lord.
From Adam to Noah
3 When[jn] Adam had lived 130 years he fathered a son in his own likeness, according to his image, and he named him Seth. 4 The length of time Adam lived[jo] after he became the father of Seth was 800 years; during this time he had[jp] other[jq] sons and daughters. 5 The entire lifetime[jr] of Adam was 930 years, and then he died.[js]
6 When Seth had lived 105 years, he became the father of[jt] Enosh. 7 Seth lived 807 years after he became the father of Enosh, and he had[ju] other[jv] sons and daughters. 8 The entire lifetime of Seth was 912 years, and then he died.
9 When Enosh had lived 90 years, he became the father of Kenan. 10 Enosh lived 815 years after he became the father of Kenan, and he had other sons and daughters. 11 The entire lifetime of Enosh was 905 years, and then he died.
12 When Kenan had lived 70 years, he became the father of Mahalalel. 13 Kenan lived 840 years after he became the father of Mahalalel, and he had other sons and daughters. 14 The entire lifetime of Kenan was 910 years, and then he died.
15 When Mahalalel had lived 65 years, he became the father of Jared. 16 Mahalalel lived 830 years after he became the father of Jared, and he had other sons and daughters. 17 The entire lifetime of Mahalalel was 895 years, and then he died.
18 When Jared had lived 162 years, he became the father of Enoch. 19 Jared lived 800 years after he became the father of Enoch, and he had other sons and daughters. 20 The entire lifetime of Jared was 962 years, and then he died.
21 When Enoch had lived 65 years, he became the father of Methuselah. 22 After he became the father of Methuselah, Enoch walked with God[jw] for 300 years,[jx] and he had other[jy] sons and daughters. 23 The entire lifetime of Enoch was 365 years. 24 Enoch walked with God, and then he disappeared[jz] because God took[ka] him away.
25 When Methuselah had lived 187 years, he became the father of Lamech. 26 Methuselah lived 782 years after he became the father of Lamech, and he had other[kb] sons and daughters. 27 The entire lifetime of Methuselah was 969 years, and then he died.
28 When Lamech had lived 182 years, he had a son. 29 He named him Noah,[kc] saying, “This one will bring us comfort[kd] from our labor and from the painful toil of our hands because of the ground that the Lord has cursed.” 30 Lamech lived 595 years after he became the father of Noah, and he had other[ke] sons and daughters. 31 The entire lifetime of Lamech was 777 years, and then he died.
32 After Noah was 500 years old, he[kf] became the father of Shem, Ham, and Japheth.
God’s Grief over Humankind’s Wickedness
6 When humankind[kg] began to multiply on the face of the earth, and daughters were born[kh] to them,[ki] 2 the sons of God[kj] saw that the daughters of humankind were beautiful. Thus they took wives for themselves from any they chose. 3 So the Lord said, “My Spirit will not remain in[kk] humankind indefinitely,[kl] since[km] they[kn] are mortal.[ko] They[kp] will remain for 120 more years.”[kq]
4 The Nephilim[kr] were on the earth in those days (and also after this)[ks] when the sons of God would sleep with[kt] the daughters of humankind, who gave birth to their children.[ku] They were the mighty heroes[kv] of old, the famous men.[kw]
5 But the Lord saw[kx] that the wickedness of humankind had become great on the earth. Every inclination[ky] of the thoughts[kz] of their minds[la] was only evil[lb] all the time.[lc] 6 The Lord regretted[ld] that he had made humankind on the earth, and he was highly offended.[le] 7 So the Lord said, “I will wipe humankind, whom I have created, from the face of the earth—everything from humankind to animals,[lf] including creatures that move on the ground and birds of the air, for I regret that I have made them.”
The Judgment of the Flood
9 This is the account of Noah.[lj]
11 The earth was ruined[lp] in the sight of[lq] God; the earth was filled with violence.[lr] 12 God saw the earth, and indeed[ls] it was ruined,[lt] for all living creatures[lu] on the earth were sinful.[lv] 13 So God said[lw] to Noah, “I have decided that all living creatures must die,[lx] for the earth is filled with violence because of them. Now I am about to destroy[ly] them and the earth. 14 Make[lz] for yourself an ark of cypress[ma] wood. Make rooms in the ark, and cover[mb] it with pitch inside and out. 15 This is how you should make it: The ark is to be 450 feet long, 75 feet wide, and 45 feet high.[mc] 16 Make a roof for the ark and finish it, leaving 18 inches[md] from the top.[me] Put a door in the side of the ark, and make lower, middle, and upper decks. 17 I am about to bring[mf] floodwaters[mg] on the earth to destroy[mh] from under the sky all the living creatures that have the breath of life in them.[mi] Everything that is on the earth will die, 18 but I will confirm[mj] my covenant with you. You will enter[mk] the ark—you, your sons, your wife, and your sons’ wives with you. 19 You must bring into the ark two of every kind of living creature from all flesh,[ml] male and female, to keep them alive[mm] with you. 20 Of the birds after their kinds, and of the cattle after their kinds, and of every creeping thing of the ground after its kind, two of every kind will come to you so you can keep them alive.[mn] 21 And you must take[mo] for yourself every kind of food[mp] that is eaten,[mq] and gather it together.[mr] It will be food for you and for them.”
7 The Lord said to Noah, “Come into the ark, you and all your household, for I consider you godly among this generation.[mu] 2 You must take with you seven pairs[mv] of every kind of clean animal,[mw] the male and its mate,[mx] two of every kind of unclean animal, the male and its mate, 3 and also seven pairs[my] of every kind of bird in the sky, male and female,[mz] to preserve their offspring[na] on the face of the entire earth. 4 For in seven days[nb] I will cause it to rain[nc] on the earth for forty days and forty nights, and I will wipe from the face of the ground every living thing that I have made.”
5 And Noah did all[nd] that the Lord commanded him.
6 Noah[ne] was 600 years old when the floodwaters engulfed[nf] the earth. 7 Noah entered the ark along with his sons, his wife, and his sons’ wives because of[ng] the floodwaters. 8 Pairs[nh] of clean animals, of unclean animals, of birds, and of everything that creeps along the ground, 9 male and female, came into the ark to Noah,[ni] just as God had commanded him.[nj] 10 And after seven days the floodwaters engulfed the earth.[nk]
11 In the six hundredth year of Noah’s life, in the second month, on the seventeenth day of the month—on that day all the fountains of the great deep[nl] burst open and the floodgates of the heavens[nm] were opened. 12 And the rain fell[nn] on the earth forty days and forty nights.
13 On that very day Noah entered the ark, accompanied by his sons Shem, Ham, and Japheth, along with his wife and his sons’ three wives.[no] 14 They entered,[np] along with every living creature after its kind, every animal after its kind, every creeping thing that creeps on the earth after its kind, and every bird after its kind, everything with wings.[nq] 15 Pairs[nr] of all creatures[ns] that have the breath of life came into the ark to Noah. 16 Those that entered were male and female,[nt] just as God commanded him. Then the Lord shut him in.
17 The flood engulfed the earth for forty days. As the waters increased, they lifted the ark and raised it above the earth. 18 The waters completely overwhelmed[nu] the earth, and the ark floated[nv] on the surface of the waters. 19 The waters completely inundated[nw] the earth so that even[nx] all the high mountains under the entire sky were covered. 20 The waters rose more than 20 feet[ny] above the mountains.[nz] 21 And all living things[oa] that moved on the earth died, including the birds, domestic animals, wild animals, all the creatures that swarm over the earth, and all humankind. 22 Everything on dry land that had the breath[ob] of life in its nostrils died. 23 So the Lord[oc] destroyed[od] every living thing that was on the surface of the ground, including people, animals, creatures that creep along the ground, and birds of the sky.[oe] They were wiped off the earth. Only Noah and those who were with him in the ark survived.[of] 24 The waters prevailed over[og] the earth for 150 days.
8 But God remembered[oh] Noah and all the wild animals and domestic animals that were with him in the ark. God caused a wind to blow over[oi] the earth and the waters receded. 2 The fountains of the deep and the floodgates of heaven were closed,[oj] and the rain stopped falling from the sky. 3 The waters kept receding steadily[ok] from the earth, so that they[ol] had gone down[om] by the end of the 150 days. 4 On the seventeenth day of the seventh month, the ark came to rest on one of the mountains of Ararat.[on] 5 The waters kept on receding[oo] until the tenth month. On the first day of the tenth month, the tops of the mountains became visible.[op]
8 Then Noah[ot] sent out a dove[ou] to see if the waters had receded[ov] from the surface of the ground. 9 The dove could not find a resting place for its feet because water still covered[ow] the surface of the entire earth, and so it returned to Noah[ox] in the ark. He stretched out his hand, took the dove,[oy] and brought it back into the ark.[oz] 10 He waited seven more days and then sent out the dove again from the ark. 11 When[pa] the dove returned to him in the evening, there was[pb] a freshly plucked olive leaf in its beak! Noah knew that the waters had receded from the earth. 12 He waited another seven days and sent the dove out again,[pc] but it did not return to him this time.[pd]
13 In Noah’s six hundred and first year,[pe] in the first day of the first month, the waters had dried up from the earth, and Noah removed the covering from the ark and saw that[pf] the surface of the ground was dry. 14 And by the twenty-seventh day of the second month the earth[pg] was dry.
15 Then God spoke to Noah and said, 16 “Come out of the ark, you, your wife, your sons, and your sons’ wives with you. 17 Bring out with you all the living creatures that are with you. Bring out[ph] every living thing, including the birds, animals, and every creeping thing that creeps on the earth. Let them increase[pi] and be fruitful and multiply on the earth!”[pj]
18 Noah went out along with his sons, his wife, and his sons’ wives. 19 Every living creature, every creeping thing, every bird, and everything that moves on the earth went out of the ark in their groups.
20 Noah built an altar to the Lord. He then took some of every kind of clean animal and clean bird and offered burnt offerings on the altar.[pk] 21 And the Lord smelled the soothing aroma[pl] and said[pm] to himself,[pn] “I will never again curse[po] the ground because of humankind, even though[pp] the inclination of their minds[pq] is evil from childhood on.[pr] I will never again destroy everything that lives, as I have just done.
God’s Covenant with Humankind through Noah
9 Then God blessed Noah and his sons and said to them, “Be fruitful and multiply and fill the earth. 2 Every living creature of the earth and every bird of the sky will be terrified of you.[pu] Everything that creeps on the ground and all the fish of the sea are under your authority.[pv] 3 You may eat any moving thing that lives.[pw] As I gave you[px] the green plants, I now give[py] you everything.
4 “But[pz] you must not eat meat[qa] with its life (that is,[qb] its blood) in it.[qc] 5 For your lifeblood[qd] I will surely exact punishment,[qe] from[qf] every living creature I will exact punishment. From each person[qg] I will exact punishment for the life of the individual[qh] since the man was his relative.[qi]
7 “But as for you,[qn] be fruitful and multiply; increase abundantly on the earth and multiply on it.”
8 God said to Noah and his sons,[qo] 9 “Look. I now confirm[qp] my covenant with you and your descendants after you[qq] 10 and with every living creature that is with you, including the birds, the domestic animals, and every living creature of the earth with you, all those that came out of the ark with you—every living creature of the earth.[qr] 11 I confirm[qs] my covenant with you: Never again will all living things[qt] be wiped out[qu] by the waters of a flood;[qv] never again will a flood destroy the earth.”
12 And God said, “This is the guarantee[qw] of the covenant I am making[qx] with you[qy] and every living creature with you, a covenant[qz] for all subsequent[ra] generations: 13 I will place[rb] my rainbow[rc] in the clouds, and it will become[rd] a guarantee of the covenant between me and the earth. 14 Whenever[re] I bring clouds over the earth and the rainbow appears in the clouds, 15 then I will remember my covenant with you[rf] and with all living creatures of all kinds.[rg] Never again will the waters become a flood and destroy[rh] all living things.[ri] 16 When the rainbow is in the clouds, I will notice it and remember[rj] the perpetual covenant between God and all living creatures of all kinds that are on the earth.”
17 So God said to Noah, “This is the guarantee of the covenant that I am confirming between me and all living things[rk] that are on the earth.”
The Curse on Canaan
20 Noah, a man of the soil,[rn] began to plant a vineyard.[ro] 21 When he drank some of the wine, he got drunk and uncovered himself[rp] inside his tent. 22 Ham, the father of Canaan,[rq] saw his father’s nakedness[rr] and told his two brothers who were outside. 23 Shem and Japheth took the garment[rs] and placed it on their shoulders. Then they walked in backwards and covered up their father’s nakedness. Their faces were turned the other way[rt] so they did not see their father’s nakedness.
26 He also said,
“Worthy of praise is[sa] the Lord, the God of Shem!
28 After the flood Noah lived 350 years. 29 The entire lifetime of Noah was 950 years, and then he died.
The Table of Nations
2 The sons of Japheth[sk] were Gomer,[sl] Magog,[sm] Madai,[sn] Javan,[so] Tubal,[sp] Meshech,[sq] and Tiras.[sr] 3 The sons of Gomer were[ss] Ashkenaz,[st] Riphath,[su] and Togarmah.[sv] 4 The sons of Javan were Elishah,[sw] Tarshish,[sx] the Kittim,[sy] and the Dodanim.[sz] 5 From these the coastlands of the nations were separated into their lands, every one according to its language, according to their families, by their nations.
6 The sons of Ham were Cush,[ta] Mizraim,[tb] Put,[tc] and Canaan.[td] 7 The sons of Cush were Seba,[te] Havilah,[tf] Sabtah,[tg] Raamah,[th] and Sabteca.[ti] The sons of Raamah were Sheba[tj] and Dedan.[tk]
8 Cush was the father of[tl] Nimrod; he began to be a valiant warrior on the earth. 9 He was a mighty hunter[tm] before the Lord.[tn] (That is why it is said, “Like Nimrod, a mighty hunter before the Lord.”) 10 The primary regions[to] of his kingdom were Babel,[tp] Erech,[tq] Akkad,[tr] and Calneh[ts] in the land of Shinar.[tt] 11 From that land he went[tu] to Assyria,[tv] where he built Nineveh,[tw] Rehoboth Ir,[tx] Calah,[ty] 12 and Resen, which is between Nineveh and the great city Calah.[tz]
15 Canaan was the father of[uk] Sidon his firstborn,[ul] Heth,[um] 16 the Jebusites,[un] Amorites,[uo] Girgashites,[up] 17 Hivites,[uq] Arkites,[ur] Sinites,[us] 18 Arvadites,[ut] Zemarites,[uu] and Hamathites.[uv] Eventually the families of the Canaanites were scattered 19 and the borders of Canaan extended[uw] from Sidon all the way to[ux] Gerar as far as Gaza, and all the way to[uy] Sodom, Gomorrah, Admah, and Zeboyim, as far as Lasha. 20 These are the sons of Ham, according to their families, according to their languages, by their lands, and by their nations.
22 The sons of Shem were Elam,[vb] Asshur,[vc] Arphaxad,[vd] Lud,[ve] and Aram.[vf] 23 The sons of Aram were Uz, Hul, Gether, and Mash.[vg] 24 Arphaxad was the father of[vh] Shelah,[vi] and Shelah was the father of Eber.[vj] 25 Two sons were born to Eber: One was named Peleg because in his days the earth was divided,[vk] and his brother’s name was Joktan. 26 Joktan was the father of[vl] Almodad,[vm] Sheleph,[vn] Hazarmaveth,[vo] Jerah,[vp] 27 Hadoram, Uzal,[vq] Diklah,[vr] 28 Obal,[vs] Abimael,[vt] Sheba,[vu] 29 Ophir,[vv] Havilah,[vw] and Jobab. All these were sons of Joktan. 30 Their dwelling place was from Mesha all the way to[vx] Sephar in the eastern hills. 31 These are the sons of Shem according to their families, according to their languages, by their lands, and according to their nations.
32 These are the families of the sons of Noah, according to their genealogies, by their nations, and from these the nations spread[vy] over the earth after the flood.
The Dispersion of the Nations at Babel
11 The whole earth[vz] had a common language and a common vocabulary.[wa] 2 When the people[wb] moved eastward,[wc] they found a plain in Shinar[wd] and settled there. 3 Then they said to one another,[we] “Come, let’s make bricks and bake them thoroughly.”[wf] (They had brick instead of stone and tar[wg] instead of mortar.)[wh] 4 Then they said, “Come, let’s build ourselves a city and a tower with its top in the heavens[wi] so that[wj] we may make a name for ourselves. Otherwise[wk] we will be scattered[wl] across the face of the entire earth.”
5 But the Lord came down to see the city and the tower that the people[wm] had started[wn] building. 6 And the Lord said, “If as one people all sharing a common language[wo] they have begun to do this, then[wp] nothing they plan to do will be beyond them.[wq] 7 Come, let’s go down and confuse[wr] their language so they won’t be able to understand each other.”[ws]
8 So the Lord scattered them from there across the face of the entire earth, and they stopped building[wt] the city. 9 That is why its name was called[wu] Babel[wv]—because there the Lord confused the language of the entire world, and from there the Lord scattered them across the face of the entire earth.
The Genealogy of Shem
10 This is the account of Shem.
Shem was 100 years old when he became the father of Arphaxad, two years after the flood. 11 And after becoming the father of Arphaxad, Shem lived 500 years and had other[ww] sons and daughters.
14 When Shelah had lived 30 years, he became the father of Eber. 15 And after he became the father of Eber, Shelah lived 403 years and had other sons and daughters.
16 When Eber had lived 34 years, he became the father of Peleg. 17 And after he became the father of Peleg, Eber lived 430 years and had other sons and daughters.
18 When Peleg had lived 30 years, he became the father of Reu. 19 And after he became the father of Reu, Peleg lived 209 years and had other sons and daughters.
20 When Reu had lived 32 years, he became the father of Serug. 21 And after he became the father of Serug, Reu lived 207 years and had other sons and daughters.
22 When Serug had lived 30 years, he became the father of Nahor. 23 And after he became the father of Nahor, Serug lived 200 years and had other sons and daughters.
24 When Nahor had lived 29 years, he became the father of Terah. 25 And after he became the father of Terah, Nahor lived 119 years and had other sons and daughters.
26 When Terah had lived 70 years, he became the father of Abram, Nahor, and Haran.
The Record of Terah
27 This is the account of Terah.
Terah became the father of Abram, Nahor, and Haran. And Haran became the father of Lot. 28 Haran died in the land of his birth, in Ur of the Chaldeans,[wz] while his father Terah was still alive.[xa] 29 And Abram and Nahor took wives for themselves. The name of Abram’s wife was Sarai.[xb] And the name of Nahor’s wife was Milcah;[xc] she was the daughter of Haran, who was the father of both Milcah and Iscah. 30 But Sarai was barren; she had no children.
31 Terah took his son Abram, his grandson Lot (the son of Haran), and his daughter-in-law Sarai, his son Abram’s wife, and with them he set out from Ur of the Chaldeans to go to Canaan. When they came to Haran, they settled there. 32 The lifetime[xd] of Terah was 205 years, and he[xe] died in Haran.
The Obedience of Abram
“Go out[xh] from your country, your relatives, and your father’s household
4 So Abram left,[xq] just as the Lord had told him to do,[xr] and Lot went with him. (Now[xs] Abram was 75 years old[xt] when he departed from Haran.) 5 And Abram took his wife Sarai, his nephew[xu] Lot, and all the possessions they had accumulated and the people they had acquired[xv] in Haran, and they left for[xw] the land of Canaan. They entered the land of Canaan.
6 Abram traveled through the land as far as the oak tree[xx] of Moreh[xy] at Shechem.[xz] (At that time the Canaanites were in the land.)[ya] 7 The Lord appeared to Abram and said, “To your descendants[yb] I will give this land.” So Abram[yc] built an altar there to the Lord, who had appeared to him.
8 Then he moved from there to the hill country east of Bethel and pitched his tent, with Bethel on the west and Ai on the east. There he built an altar to the Lord and worshiped the Lord.[yd] 9 Abram continually journeyed by stages[ye] down to the Negev.[yf]
The Promised Blessing Jeopardized
10 There was a famine in the land, so Abram went down to Egypt[yg] to stay for a while[yh] because the famine was severe.[yi] 11 As he approached[yj] Egypt, he said to his wife Sarai, “Look,[yk] I know that you are a beautiful woman.[yl] 12 When the Egyptians see you they will say, ‘This is his wife.’ Then they will kill me but will keep you alive.[ym] 13 So tell them[yn] you are my sister[yo] so that it may go well[yp] for me because of you and my life will be spared[yq] on account of you.”
14 When Abram entered Egypt, the Egyptians saw that the woman was very beautiful. 15 When Pharaoh’s officials saw her, they praised her to Pharaoh. So Abram’s wife[yr] was taken[ys] into the household of Pharaoh,[yt] 16 and he did treat Abram well[yu] on account of her. Abram received[yv] sheep and cattle, male donkeys, male servants, female servants, female donkeys, and camels.
17 But the Lord struck Pharaoh and his household with severe diseases[yw] because of Sarai, Abram’s wife. 18 So Pharaoh summoned Abram and said, “What is this[yx] you have done to me? Why didn’t you tell me that she was your wife? 19 Why did you say, ‘She is my sister,’ so that I took her[yy] to be my wife?[yz] Now, here is your wife. Take her and go!”[za] 20 Pharaoh gave his men orders about Abram,[zb] and so they expelled him, along with his wife and all his possessions.
Abram’s Solution to the Strife
3 And he journeyed from place to place[zg] from the Negev as far as Bethel. He returned[zh] to the place where he had pitched his tent[zi] at the beginning, between Bethel and Ai. 4 This was the place where he had first built the altar,[zj] and there Abram worshiped the Lord.[zk]
5 Now Lot, who was traveling[zl] with Abram, also had[zm] flocks, herds, and tents. 6 But the land could[zn] not support them while they were living side by side.[zo] Because their possessions were so great, they were not able to live[zp] alongside one another. 7 So there were quarrels[zq] between Abram’s herdsmen and Lot’s herdsmen.[zr] (Now the Canaanites and the Perizzites were living in the land at that time.)[zs]
8 Abram said to Lot, “Let there be no quarreling between me and you, and between my herdsmen and your herdsmen, for we are close relatives.[zt] 9 Is not the whole land before you? Separate yourself now from me. If you go[zu] to the left, then I’ll go to the right, but if you go to the right, then I’ll go to the left.”
10 Lot looked up and saw[zv] the whole region[zw] of the Jordan. He noticed[zx] that all of it was well watered (this was before the Lord obliterated[zy] Sodom and Gomorrah)[zz] like the garden of the Lord, like the land of Egypt,[aaa] all the way to Zoar. 11 Lot chose for himself the whole region of the Jordan and traveled[aab] toward the east.
So the relatives separated from each other.[aac] 12 Abram settled in the land of Canaan, but Lot settled among the cities of the Jordan plain[aad] and pitched his tents next to Sodom. 13 (Now[aae] the people[aaf] of Sodom were extremely wicked rebels against the Lord.)[aag]
14 After Lot had departed, the Lord said to Abram,[aah] “Look[aai] from the place where you stand to the north, south, east, and west. 15 I will give all the land that you see to you and your descendants[aaj] forever. 16 And I will make your descendants like the dust of the earth, so that if anyone is able to count the dust of the earth, then your descendants also can be counted.[aak] 17 Get up and[aal] walk[aam] throughout the land,[aan] for I will give it to you.”
The Blessing of Victory for God’s People
14 At that time[aaq] Amraphel king of Shinar,[aar] Arioch king of Ellasar, Kedorlaomer king of Elam, and Tidal king of nations[aas] 2 went to war[aat] against Bera king of Sodom, Birsha king of Gomorrah, Shinab king of Admah, Shemeber king of Zeboyim, and the king of Bela (that is, Zoar).[aau] 3 These last five kings[aav] joined forces[aaw] in the Valley of Siddim (that is, the Salt Sea).[aax] 4 For twelve years[aay] they had served Kedorlaomer, but in the thirteenth year[aaz] they rebelled.[aba] 5 In the fourteenth year, Kedorlaomer and the kings who were his allies came and defeated[abb] the Rephaites in Ashteroth Karnaim, the Zuzites in Ham, the Emites in Shaveh Kiriathaim, 6 and the Horites in their hill country of Seir, as far as El Paran, which is near the desert.[abc] 7 Then they attacked En Mishpat (that is, Kadesh) again,[abd] and they conquered all the territory of the Amalekites, as well as the Amorites who were living in Hazezon Tamar.
8 Then the king of Sodom, the king of Gomorrah, the king of Admah, the king of Zeboyim, and the king of Bela (that is, Zoar) went out and prepared for battle. In the Valley of Siddim they met[abe] 9 Kedorlaomer king of Elam, Tidal king of nations,[abf] Amraphel king of Shinar, and Arioch king of Ellasar. Four kings fought against[abg] five. 10 Now the Valley of Siddim was full of tar pits.[abh] When the kings of Sodom and Gomorrah fled, they fell into them,[abi] but some survivors[abj] fled to the hills.[abk] 11 The four victorious kings[abl] took all the possessions and food of Sodom and Gomorrah and left. 12 They also took Abram’s nephew[abm] Lot and his possessions when[abn] they left, for Lot[abo] was living in Sodom.[abp]
13 A fugitive[abq] came and told Abram the Hebrew.[abr] Now Abram was living by the oaks[abs] of Mamre the Amorite, the brother[abt] of Eshcol and Aner. (All these were allied by treaty[abu] with Abram.)[abv] 14 When Abram heard that his nephew[abw] had been taken captive, he mobilized[abx] his 318 trained men who had been born in his household, and he pursued the invaders[aby] as far as Dan.[abz] 15 Then, during the night,[aca] Abram[acb] divided his forces[acc] against them and defeated them. He chased them as far as Hobah, which is north[acd] of Damascus. 16 He retrieved all the stolen property.[ace] He also brought back his nephew Lot and his possessions, as well as the women and the rest of[acf] the people.
17 After Abram[acg] returned from defeating Kedorlaomer and the kings who were with him, the king of Sodom went out to meet Abram[ach] in the Valley of Shaveh (known as the King’s Valley).[aci] 18 Melchizedek king of Salem[acj] brought out bread and wine. (Now he was the priest of the Most High God.)[ack] 19 He blessed Abram, saying,
Abram gave Melchizedek[acq] a tenth of everything.
21 Then the king of Sodom said to Abram, “Give me the people and take the possessions for yourself.” 22 But Abram replied to the king of Sodom, “I raise my hand[acr] to the Lord, the Most High God, Creator of heaven and earth, and vow[acs] 23 that I will take nothing[act] belonging to you, not even a thread or the strap of a sandal. That way you can never say, ‘It is I[acu] who made Abram rich.’ 24 I will take nothing[acv] except compensation for what the young men have eaten.[acw] As for the share of the men who went with me—Aner, Eshcol, and Mamre—let them take their share.”
The Cutting of the Covenant
2 But Abram said, “O Sovereign Lord,[acz] what will you give me since[ada] I continue to be[adb] childless, and my heir[adc] is[add] Eliezer of Damascus?”[ade] 3 Abram added,[adf] “Since[adg] you have not given me a descendant, then look, one born in my house will be my heir!”[adh]
4 But look,[adi] the Lord’s message came to him: “This man[adj] will not be your heir, but instead[adk] a son[adl] who comes from your own body will be your heir.” 5 The Lord[adm] took him outside and said, “Gaze into the sky and count the stars—if you are able to count them!” Then he said to him, “So will your descendants be.”
7 The Lord said[ads] to him, “I am the Lord[adt] who brought you out from Ur of the Chaldeans[adu] to give you this land to possess.” 8 But[adv] Abram[adw] said, “O Sovereign Lord,[adx] by what[ady] can I know that I am to possess it?”
9 The Lord[adz] said to him, “Take for me a heifer, a goat, and a ram, each three years old, along with a dove and a young pigeon.” 10 So Abram[aea] took all these for him and then cut them in two[aeb] and placed each half opposite the other,[aec] but he did not cut the birds in half. 11 When birds of prey came down on the carcasses, Abram drove them away.
12 When the sun went down, Abram fell sound asleep,[aed] and great terror overwhelmed him.[aee] 13 Then the Lord said to Abram, “Know for certain[aef] that your descendants will be strangers[aeg] in a foreign country.[aeh] They will be enslaved and oppressed[aei] for 400 years. 14 But I will execute judgment on the nation that they will serve.[aej] Afterward they will come out with many possessions. 15 But as for you,[aek] you will go to your ancestors[ael] in peace and be buried at a good old age.[aem] 16 In the fourth generation[aen] your descendants[aeo] will return here, for the sin of the Amorites has not yet reached its limit.”[aep]
17 When the sun had gone down and it was dark, a smoking firepot with a flaming torch[aeq] passed between the animal parts.[aer] 18 That day the Lord made a covenant[aes] with Abram: “To your descendants I give[aet] this land, from the river of Egypt[aeu] to the great river, the Euphrates River— 19 the land[aev] of the Kenites, Kenizzites, Kadmonites, 20 Hittites, Perizzites, Rephaites, 21 Amorites, Canaanites, Girgashites, and Jebusites.”[aew]